SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
EFFECT OF SURFACTANTS ON ALUMINOSILCATE
I. D. Kashcheev,
K. G. Zemlyanoi,
I. V. Kormina,
and S. V. Markova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 3, pp. 139 – 146, March 2011.
Original article submitted February 25, 2011.
Results are provided for a study of the effect of surface-active substances (SAS) based on polyethylene
naphthalene sulfonic acids (SP-1, Thermoplast-1, Thermoplast-3, Thermoplast-4, Thermoplast-5, 3MB) on
the production properties of refractory charges and physicoceramic properties of objects based on ordinary
and high-alumina chamottes, and also electromelted corundum. It is established that on introducing the test
SAS there is an increase in charge bulk density, which in turn promotes a reduction in molding pressure, in
creases raw material density and improves mechanical properties both after drying and for finished objects.
Keywords: surface-active substance (SAS), aluminosilicate refractories, polymethylenenaphthalene sulfonic
acids, absorption, specific surface, bulk density, apparent density, ultimate strength in compression.
Surface-active substances (SAS) have been used for a
long time in refractory technology, promoting improvement
of technical and economic production indices . The
weight fraction of SAS is normally within the limits
0.02 – 0.20% and it is individual for each material and grind-
ing conditions. Action of SAS is based on absorption reduc
tion of strength, first established by P. A. Rebinder, as a re
sult of a reduction in the specific surface energy of a solid.
SAS are used most extensively in grinding solids. As a rule,
the concentration of SAS is established by testing.
Recently, in view of the expanded production and appli
cation of molded refractories there is extensive use of
plastifying additions. Additions, made in order to improve
plasticity (i.e. in order to control the rheological properties),
are mainly surface-active. The main properties of additions
involve the fact that their molecules are bonded stably with
the surface of refractory material and absorbed upon it . In
this case the composition of the refractory material surface is
of great importance. An increase in material fineness gives
an increase in its interphase surface, and its properties
change, depending on the grinding mechanism (free impact,
restricted impact, and wear, pure wear, etc.). In the course of
grinding impurities in the material are segregated at the sur
face of particles . Unmolded mixes, including a new gen-
eration of concretes, contain a considerable amount of fine
fractions. Use of these concretes with a moisture content of
5 – 7% without special materials  and technology  is
impossible. Plastifying additions are important for diluting
the finely dispersed part of a system, in order to give it fluid-
ity during some time in spite of low water requirement, i.e.,
in order to improve the rheological properties and optimize
concrete laying. It is assumed that polycarboxylate esters are
more effective plastifiers than polyacrylates, differing in the
deflocculation mechanism .
The company OAO Poliplast has mastered and supplied
special additions of the Thermoplast series for refractories,
which are mixture of sodium and polyalkalene oxide deriva
tives of polymethylenenaphthalene sulfonic acids and poly
ethylene glycol, whose action depends on their mineral com
position and technology for refractory material preparation.
Classification of Thermoplast additions and production spec
ifications are provided in TU 5746-048-58042865–2010, in
accordance with which additions are binding, dispersing, and
diluting, and they are supplied to the consumer in liquid or
In the present work, in order to determine the effect of
form and concentration of additions on production and
physicochemical properties of objects, five forms of addi
tions produced by OAO Poliplast were studied: SP-1,
Thermoplast-1, Thermoplast-3, Thermoplast-4, Thermoplast-5
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 2, July, 2011
1083-4877/11/05202-0136 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
FGAOUVPO B. N. El’tsin UrFU, Yekaterinburg, Russia.
OOO Poliplast Novomoskovsk, Novomoskovsk, Tula Region,