ISSN 1021-4437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2018, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 412–418. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2018.
Original Russian Text © L.G. Yarullina, A.R. Akhatova, L.M. Yarullina, R.I. Kasimova, 2018, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2018, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 207–214.
Effect of Salicylic and Jasmonic Acids on the Content of Hydrogen
Peroxide and Transcriptional Activity of the Genes Encoding Defense
Proteins in Wheat Plants Infected with Tilletia caries (DC.) Tull.
L. G. Yarullina
*, A. R. Akhatova
, L. M. Yarullina
, and R. I. Kasimova
Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, 450054 Russia
Bashkir State University, Ufa, Russia
Bashkir State Medical University, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia
Received April 7, 2017
We investigated the effect of presowing treatment of seeds with salicylic (SA) and jasmonic (JA)
acids on the growth of wheat Triticum aestivum L. seedlings, generation of hydrogen peroxide (Н
and transcriptional activity of the genes encoding defense proteins—oxalate oxidase (OxO), peroxidase (PO),
and proteinase inhibitor (PI)—upon their inoculation with stinking smut pathogen Tilletia caries (DC.) Tull.
SA and JA were found to reduce adverse effect of T. caries on growth of seedlings and the extent of their infec-
tion by the pathogen. Improvement of plant resistance to T. caries depended on a stimulatory effect of SA and
JA on the formation of Н
in plant tissues and changes in activity of ОхО, PO, and catalase. SA was shown
to elevate transcriptional activity of the genes of oxalate oxidase and peroxidase. We detected a considerable
stimulatory effect of JA on transcriptional activity of the gene encoding proteinase inhibitor. Revealed differ-
ences in the activation of defense proteins pointed to differing mechanisms of SA and JA action on protective
potential of wheat plants infected with T. caries.
Keywords: Triticum aestivum, Tilletia caries, oxidoreductases, proteinase inhibitors, salicylic acid, jasmonic
acid, induced resistance
Plant resistance to abiotic and biotic environmen-
tal factors, including infection with pathogens, is
based on realization of a complex of physiological and
biochemical processes occurring at cell, tissue, and
organism levels. It is known that protective reaction of
plant organisms to a fungal infection in many respects
depends on trophic specialization of fungi. A long
coevolution of plants and microorganisms resulted in
emergence of pathogens with different types of para-
sitism: biotrophs, necrotrophs, and hemibiotrophs.
Typical representatives of pathogens with
biotrophic nutrition are smuts whose control is an
important task today . Stinking smut pathogen
Tilletia caries (DC.) Tull. penetrates plants primarily
via coleoptiles several days after germination of infected
caryopsis. Prior to the onset of grain ripening, the fun-
gus develops in plant tissues without visible symptoms
and is detected only by means of cytological analysis of
microscopic sections , which complicates investiga-
tion of the mechanism of resistance to pathogen and
search for inductors of resistance .
Induction of defense response in plants involves
various signal systems that are triggered by signal mol-
ecules. Such a function may be performed by salicylic
(SA) and jasmonic (JA) acids, hydrogen peroxide, and
some other molecules [4, 5]. In relation to discovery of
a signal role of hydrogen peroxide, the enzymes regu-
lating its level in the course of pathogenesis, such as
peroxidase (PO) and oxalate oxidase (OxO), have
attracted particular attention.
A pathogen’s ability to invade plant organisms and
develop therein very largely depends on the activity of
its extracellular hydrolases, specifically proteinases. In
response to the action of proteinases, plants induce the
synthesis of proteinaceous inhibitors that suppress the
activity of these enzymes [6, 7]. Investigation of the
effect of SA and JA on development of a protective
reaction of wheat involving proteinase inhibitors (PI)
and oxidoreductases (oxalate oxidase, peroxidase, and
catalase) upon infection with Tilletia caries is of scien-
tific and applied interest.
Abbreviations: BAPNA—N,α-benzoyl-DL-arginine p-nitroani-
lide; IU—inhibitor units; JA—jasmonic acid; ОхО—oxalate oxi-
dase; PB—phosphate buffer; PI—proteinase inhibitors; PO—
peroxidase; SA—salicylic acid; SB—succinate buffer.