Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 8, pp. 1197−1200.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © K.S. Khitrin, S.V. Khitrin, S.L. Fuks, D.S. Meteleva, E.N. Vtyurina, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85,
No. 8, pp. 1258−1261.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Effect of Physical and Chemical Modiﬁ cation
on the Sorption Capacity of Hydrolyzed Lignin
K. S. Khitrin, S. V. Khitrin, S. L. Fuks,
D. S. Meteleva, and E. N. Vtyurina
Vyatka State University, Kirov, Russia
Received October 4, 2011
Abstract—Processes of thermal and chemical treatment of hydrolyzed lignins by ﬂ uorination are described. The
thus treated product is suggested to be used as a sorbent in organic and inorganic media.
In view of the decreasing resources of fossil organic
raw materials, serious attention has been given in recent
years to chemical and biotechnological processing of
the vegetable biomass. In contrast to fossil sources of
organic raw materials, the stock of the phytomass is
replenished by the living activity of higher plants. About
200 billion tons of the vegetable biomass is annually
formed on our planet.
Hydrolysis of polysaccharides from vegetable raw
materials is the most promising method for chemical
processing of wood. The market share of Kirov
Biochemical plant (KBCP) is up to 90% for technical-
grade alcohols from inedible raw materials, and it is
the only manufacturer of furfural, furfuryl alcohol, and
forage yeast in Russia. The largest tonnage waste from
hydrolysis industries, which has not found qualiﬁ ed use
so far, is hydrolyzed lignin (HL).
The presently main areas of possible utilization of
HL have been determined . According to published
data, one of the most rapidly developing areas is
application of HL as a sorbent. A selective sorption has
been reported for heavy, noble, and other metals [2, 3];
organic compounds ; and biological; contaminants
The main difﬁ culty encountered in utilization of
industrial lignins, and especially HL, is related to the
variability of their composition and characteristics,
depending on numerous factors, such as the composition
of the raw material, transportation conditions, and
technological modes of production. A procedure has
been suggested  for determining the coniferous and
deciduous components of HL by quantitative processing
of IR spectra and the subsequent modiﬁ cation of HL,
during which new functional groups are introduced
into the structure of HL and its molecular mass and
structure are changed. This imparts to HL a set of new
valuable properties. Previously, it has been reported that
properties of HL change as a result of phosphorylation
[7, 8] and carboxymethylation .
The least studied area is that of lignin ﬂ uorination ,
although ﬂ uorocarbons and, in particular, ﬂ uorinated
lignin are highly important for modern science and
technology. Fluorocarbons possess a number of valuable
properties: they are incombustible and not subject to
corrosion and rotting. The opportunity for their practical
application is becoming steadily wider.
The goal of our study was to examine the effect of
alkaline activation, thermal treatment, and ﬂ uorination
on the composition and sorption properties of HLs.
The functional composition of the samples under
study was determined by procedures described in .