EFFECT OF ORGANOSILICON PHOSPHATE BINDERS
ON PHYSICOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES
OF CORUNDUM-CARBON REFRACTORIES
V. A. Krotikov,
G. S. Buslaev,
A. E. Zhukovskaya,
and I. I. Kozelkova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 2, pp. 35 – 39, February, 2006.
Original article submitted May 3, 2005.
The effect of organosilicon and aluminophosphate binders on the physicomechanical properties of corun
dum-carbon refractories is studied. The environmental safety of the binders is discussed. Binders for use in
sintered and nonfired components are developed.
The range of refractories commercially available in Rus-
sia and around the world is exceptionally wide; oxide-carbon
components constitute the major part of them. As a rule, the
physical and engineering properties of oxide-carbon
refractories are to a significant extent dependent on the
binder. To manufacture oxide-carbon refractories, various or-
ganic resins are commonly employed, for example, phe-
nol-formaldehyde resins of the resol-novolac type. The role
of an organic-resin binder is that, during the heat treatment,
the resin undergoes degradation to convert to a reinforcing
carbon framework over the entire volume of the component.
The active carbon thus formed takes part in the phase forma
tion of secondary compounds (carbides or oxycarbides); this
process can occur during sintering in a nonoxidazing me
dium, or during the service of the component.
Viewed from an ecological standpoint, the use of such a
binder may raise objections for the reason that it releases
substances hazardous to human health and environment:
phenols, cresols, xylylenes, formaldehyde, etc. . To re
medy the situation, the production technology should be pro
vided with additional facilities for filtering by suction or
afterburn of the species released, which increases the cost of
the final product.
The development of an environment-friendly binder ca
pable of providing the useful properties of oxide-carbon
refractories has been and continues to be a major challenge
to technologists; still, the results so far obtained remain in
conclusive. It was thought of interest to consider the poten
tial application of a widely used aluminophosphate bond and
well-known organosilicon binders in the production of oxi-
de-carbon refractories [2, 3]. Our attention was focused on a
previously studied organosilicon binder of the ÉSK series 
and an aluminophosphate bond (APB) taken in different
The ÉSK-type binder was obtained by dispersing solid
polymethylphenylsiloxane resins (113-101) in a medium of
ethyl silicate-40 (ÉTS-40) using, for example, a ball mill.
The colloidal solution thus prepared was stable over time
and, when stored in a tightly sealed container, had a shelf life
of several years. To enhance the mechanical strength of the
raw material (the compressive strength should not be less
than 1.2 MPa [4, 5]), an adhesive agent, for example, ligno
sulfonates, polyvinyl acetate (PVA), etc., is added to the ÉSK
binder. As compared to refractory materials prepared using
lignosulfonates, the use of ÉSK makes it possible to improve
the mechanical strength, thermal stability and density of the
components, to decrease sintering shrinkage and open poros
ity, to lower the sintering temperature, and to improve the re
sistance to attack by molten metal and slag. Expertise has
been gained in using an ÉSK binder (7 – 10 wt.% in excess
of 100%) under plant conditions when the plates for steel-la
dle slide gates were made at the Semilukskii Refractory Plant
(Semiluki, Voronezh Region, Russia) and later tested in
pouring steel into molds at the West-Siberia Iron and Steel
Works (Novokuznetsk, Russia).
Phosphate bonds, for example, APB or ACPB (alumo
chromium phosphate binder), have found application in the
manufacture of heat-resistant composites, including refrac
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 1, 2006
1083-4877/06/4701-0053 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Institute of Silicate Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, St.