ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 40−49. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © E.P. Medyantseva, D.V. Brusnitsyn, R.M. Varlamova, A.A. Maksimov, A.N. Fattakhova, O.A. Konovalova, G.K. Budnikov, 2015, published
in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 1, pp. 45−54.
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
Particular attention is being given in development
of new amperometric sensors to application of nano-
structured materials, such as carbon nanotubes and
metal nanoparticles as modiﬁ ers of the electrode surface.
Nanostructured materials, including the biosensitive part
of sensors, have speciﬁ c properties and are perspective for
modiﬁ cation of various primary transducers and, in par-
ticular, screen-printed graphite electrodes. Use of carbon
nanotubes can change the electrode surface, make it more
developed and more electrically conducting [1, 2]. The
presence of various functional groups (carboxy, carbonyl,
and hydroxy) on the surface of carbon nanotubes and the
possibility of further modiﬁ cation open up new prospects
or development of sensors and biosensors [3–6].
Carbon nanotubes are solubilized in various solvents
not only to facilitate their deposition onto the electrode
surface, but also to stabilize their dispersions [7–10]. The
effect of dispersion stabilization has also been noticed
in the case of chitosan . Chitosan is a polyelectrolyte
of the polycation type, it is capable of ﬁ lm formation, it
is nontoxic and biocompatible with enzymes [11, 12].
Al this indicates that chitosan is promising as a basis for
the biosensitive layer formed on the electrode’s surface.
Combination of nanostructured materials and biomaterials
and, in particular, polysaccharides (to which chitosan
belongs) in biosensors can result in better working
characteristics of enzyme sensors.
Metal nanoparticles are also used, except concentrated
ones, to modify the electrode surface. Until recently, gold
nanoparticles have been most frequently used [13–16].
Silver nanoparticles are used for these purposes to a lesser
Effect of Nanostructured Materials as Electrode Surface
Modiﬁ ers on the Analytical Capacity
of Amperometric Biosensors
E. P. Medyantseva
, D. V. Brusnitsyn
, R. M. Varlamova
, A. A. Maksimov
, A. N. Fattakhova
O. A. Konovalova
, and G. K. Budnikov
Butlerov Chemical Institute, ul. Kremlevskaya 1/29, Kazan, Tatarstan, 420111 Russia
Institute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology, ul. Karla Marksa 74, Kazan, Tatarstan, 420012 Russia
Institute of Physics, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, ul. Kremlevskaya, 18, Kazan, Tatarstan, 420000 Russia
Received October 28, 2014
Abstract—Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles as surface modiﬁ ers of screen-printed
graphite electrodes, the basis of amperometric monoamine oxidase biosensors, on their analytical characteristics
was studied. The presence of carbon nanotubes and silver nanoparticles was conﬁ rmed by UV spectroscopy and
scanning electron microscopy. The use of the oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide, the product of oxidative
deamination of biogenic amines in the presence of immobilized monoamine oxidase as a representative of the
class of oxidoreductases, as the analytical signal made it possible to choose the synthesis method and to suggest
ways to deposit the modiﬁ ers under study on the electrode surface. The curve of the inhibiting effect of tricyclic
antidepressants on the catalytic activity of the immobilized enzyme on the solution pH and amount of modiﬁ ers
was considered. It was found that the lower limit of the determinable concentrations decreases to a level of 4 ×
M, the sensitivity coefﬁ cient is improved, and the range of determinable concentrations of amitryptiline and
imipramine is extended to 1 × 10
–1 × 10
M. It is shown that the suggested biosensors can be used to monitor
the residual amounts of medical substances in urine.