ISSN 10630740, Russian Journal of Marine Biology, 2010, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 305–310. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2010.
Original Russian Text © Yu.O. Kipryushina, P.A. Lukyanov, N.A. Odintsova, 2010, published in Biologiya Morya.
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation with a wavelength
shorter than 285 nm is significantly absorbed by atmo
spheric ozone and, under normal conditions, does not
reach the Earth’s surface. However, the emission of
industrial pollutants, especially chlorinated com
pounds, has caused a noticeable depletion of the
ozone layer  and, as a result, an increase in the
intensity of shortwave UV radiation. An increased
level of UV radiation at the Earth’s surface has an
adverse effect on human health, reducing immunity,
enhancing skin aging, causing cancers, and contribut
ing to the development of cataracts and other diseases
. At the molecular level, UV radiation can damage
proteins, lipids, DNA, and carbohydrates, as well as
induce activation of cytokines’ receptors and growth
factors, launching thereby the cascade reactions that
cause cell apoptosis .
An active search is conducted for substances capa
ble of defending biological objects effectively from
UVradiation damage. The majority of such studies
analyze substances that act as protective UVabsorb
ing screens . As well, some substances, namely gly
coproteides or polysaccharides (e.g. hyaluronan), act
by other mechanisms .
Mytilan is a polysaccharide obtained from wastes
of industrial processing of mussels . Mytilan con
sists of a carbohydrate component (90–95% of the
total content), a glycogenlike 1,4; 1,6
with a highly branched carbohydrate chain structure, a
The article was translated by the authors.
few 1,2 and 1,3linked Dglucose residues at branch
points, and a protein component, viz., galactosespe
cific lectin (5–10% of the total content) .
To date, extensive experimental material has been
collected on the physiological activity of mytilan in
vertebrates. Biomedical research has shown that myti
lan is nontoxic (LD
exceeds 1 g/kg) and does not
induce irritation or allergic reaction upon skin con
tact. It has antiinflammatory and antinecrotic effects
and enhances the protective immune response of an
organism against bacterial and viral infections [2, 3].
In this work, we studied the UVprotective effects
of mytilan on two model systems: the larvae of marine
invertebrates (bivalve mollusks and sea urchins) and a
primary culture of human peripheral blood lympho
cytes [7, 11, 17, 23, 25], which are known to be conve
nient test objects for the evaluation of the negative
impacts of UV radiation.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The bivalve mollusk
and the sea
from Vostok Bay
of the Sea of Japan were used as objects of our study.
The collected animals were kept in aquaria with aer
ated sea water. Artificial insemination was performed
at temperatures of 18–19
) and 19–
) . The
the trochophore stage (20–24 h after fertilization) and
larvae at the gastrula stage (24–28 h
after fertilization) were collected on a nylon net (35
Effect of Mytilan on the UVRadiation Resistance of Marine
Invertebrate Larvae and Human Lymphocytes
Yu. O. Kipryushina
, P. A. Lukyanov
, and N. A. Odintsova
Far Eastern State University, Vladivostok 690000, Russia
Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690022 Russia;
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received January 29, 2010
—The effect of UV irradiation on the state of marine invertebrate larvae (a bivalve mollusk and a sea
urchin) and human peripheral blood lymphocytes was investigated in the presence of mytilan, a polysaccha
ride isolated from the mussel
This polysaccharide exhibited UVprotective activities
in each of the tested model systems. The preincubation with mytilan markedly reduced the negative effects of
UV irradiation: the viability of marine invertebrate larvae was enhanced, the occurrence of their morpholog
ical abnormalities decreased, the number of viable lymphocytes increased, and the basic parameters of phys
iological activity of lymphocytes became normal.
UV irradiation, bioactive substances, mytilan, marine invertebrate larvae, lymphocytes.