European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry (2018) 19:147–153
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE
Eﬀect of mouthwashes on the discolouration of restorative materials
commonly used in paediatric dentistry
N. B. Ulusoy
· V. Arikan
· A. Akbay Oba
Received: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published online: 16 May 2018
© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2018
Aim This was to investigate the eﬀects of Klorhex, Tantum Verde, Kloroben, and Listerine on the discolouration of composite
resin, compomer, giomer, and resin-modiﬁed glass ionomer.
Methods Fifty disc-shaped specimens from each restorative material (n = 50) were prepared; initial colour values were
measured with a spectrophotometer. Forty specimens from each group were placed in the four diﬀerent types of mouthwashes
(n = 10), while the remaining 10 specimens were immersed in distilled water for 2 min, twice a day for a period of 3 weeks.
Colour change (ΔE*) values were obtained and the results were evaluated statistically.
Results The ΔE* of composite resin in Klorhex (0.84 ± 0.37) was signiﬁcantly lower than that of the other mouthwash groups.
Moreover, composite resin showed the least colour change when compared with the other materials in all four mouthwashes.
Resin-modiﬁed glass ionomer values were signiﬁcantly higher in Tantum Verde (6.36 ± 2.82) when compared with the other
mouthwashes (p < 0.05). Clinically appreciable discolourations were observed in the resin-modiﬁed glass ionomer specimens
placed in Tantum Verde and Listerine.
Conclusions Nano-ﬁlling composite resins are the most successful aesthetic restorative materials, whereas the commonly
used resin-modiﬁed glass ionomers exhibit more aesthetically divergent results following the use of mouthwashes.
Keywords Composite resins · Glass ionomer cements · Mouthwashes · Spectrophotometry
An increase in aesthetic expectations in dentistry has led
to the development of various compositions of restorative
materials resulting in the availability of diverse materials for
clinical use. Frequently used materials in paediatric dentistry
include resin composites, poly acid-modiﬁed composite res-
ins (compomers), and resin-modiﬁed glass ionomers. Resin
composites are composed of resin matrix and ﬁller mate-
rials that are well developed, both chemically and physi-
cally, to meet the aesthetic requirements by employing sim-
ple application techniques (Lepri et al. 2014). Compomers
and resin-modiﬁed glass ionomers are aesthetic materials
that are composed of diﬀerent proportions of conventional
glass ionomers and light-polymerised resins. They have
both anti-caries as well as adhesive properties (Gurdal et al.
2002). In addition to these hybrid materials, giomers are
aesthetic materials that contain pre-reacted glass ionomer
ﬁllers (S-PRG) and were developed to increase the eﬃciency
of protection against caries with more ﬂuoride release and
charge (Tay et al. 2001). Despite the signiﬁcant develop-
ment of aesthetic materials in recent years, the prevention
of changes in the physical properties of restorations, such as
colour stability, poses a challenge due to various factors in
the oral cavity. Consumption of various foods and beverages
may cause physico-chemical reactions within the matrix in
the superﬁcial and deep layers of the restorative materials
leading to changes in intrinsic properties (Powers et al. 1978;
Gaintantzopoulou et al. 2005). The resulting discolouration
leads to patient dissatisfaction; thus, additional time and
expenditure are required for the replacement of the restora-
tion (Tyas 2005). Approximately 30–40% of composite resin
restorations have been renewed within a period of 5 years
owing to discolouration (Barnes et al. 1991; Wilson et al.
1997). The use of mouthwashes has been reported as one of
the important causes of discolouration in restorative materi-
als (Yazici et al. 2007).
* N. B. Ulusoy
Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kırıkkale University,
Yenisehir Mah. No: 1, Yahsihan, Kırıkkale, Turkey