ISSN 1070-4272. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2006, Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 841!844. + Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2006.
Original Russian Text + V.I. Chursin, 2006, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2006, Vol. 79, No. 5, pp. 853!856.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Effect of Mixture Components on the Rheological
Characteristics of the Composite
V. I. Chursin
Central Research Institute of Leather-Shoe Industry, Joint-Stock Company, Moscow, Russia
Received January 24, 2006
Abstract-Rheological characteristics and properties of composites prepared from tanning industry wastes
were studied in relation to the ratio and composition of components in the mixture.
Any production involves formation of wastes
whose certain fraction is recycled, whereas the other
fraction is dumped, polluting the environment. There-
fore, utilization of collagen-containing wastes (chrome
leather chips, hide crops, etc.) formed in significant
amounts in the course of the rawstock treatment is an
urgent problem from both commercial and environ-
An alternative solution of the problem of utilizing
collagen-containing wastes can be based on modern
procedures developed for processing of polymeric and
biopolymeric systems [1, 2]. New polymeric materials
with a wide range of service properties can be pre-
pared from compounds of various chemical nature,
including wastes from the tanning industry. These
materials can be most efficiently used in production of
insole and support materials, especially for sports,
childhood, and orthopedic footwear.
Elucidation of the relationship between the com-
position and structural and mechanical properties of
the composites is one of the main problems in produc-
tion of composite materials with required character-
istics . However, data on the rheological properties
of mixtures for preparing composites based on the
protein3polymer matrix and collagen-containing filler
In this study we examined the elastoplastic and
heat-protecting properties of composites prepared
from disperse systems containing latexes, products of
collagen dissolution (PCD), products of collagen
hydrolysis (PCH), and polyethylene glycol oleate
(PEGO) plasticizer. The following latexes were used:
Lenteks A5 (acrylate3styrene), Lenteks AN7 (terpoly-
mer of acrylate with styrene and acrylonitrile), BS-50
(butadiene3styrene), and BN3 (copolymer of acrylate
with acrylonitrile). As a filler, we used chrome leather
chips, wastes from shaving of the chroming half-fin-
ished product, preliminarily ground to 1.031.5 mm
size, with water and chromium oxide contents of
>30 and >3.834.3%, respectively. The dry residues of
PCD and PCH were 2.81 and 8.57%, respectively.
The rheological properties of the mixtures were
determined on a DV-II Brookfield viscometer at a
shear rate of 30 s
. First, we studied the rheological
properties of mixtures of the initial components.
The viscosity of the protein-containing solutions is
plotted in Fig. 1 vs. the content of chrome leather
chips. As seen, with increasing content of the chips in
the mixture its viscosity increases. The strongest in-
crease in the viscosity of the PCH- and PCD-contain-
ing systems is observed at the chip content of 20325
and 10320 wt %, respectively. Probably, at these com-
positions fine chips are saturated with macromolecules
of hydrolyzate and PCD, whereas further linear in-
crease in the viscosity is due to the system thickening.
At the viscosity of the chrome leather chips3PCD sys-
tem higher than 8000 mPa s, casting of the resulting
mixture to prepare the composite material is compli-
cated by its poor distribution in the mold.
Changes in the viscosity of the chrome leather
chips3 PCD system also depend on the content of
PCD (Fig. 2).
Fig. 1. Viscosity D of (1) PCD and (2) PCH systems as
a function of the chip content c.