ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 6, pp. 930 !933. + Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text + S.A. Chulovskaya, V.I. Parfenyuk, 2007, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2007, Vol. 80, No. 6, pp. 952!955.
AND CORROSION PROTECTION OF METALS
Effect of Isopropyl Alcohol on Cathodic Deposition
of Ultradispersed Copper-containing Powders
from Electrolyte Solutions
S. A. Chulovskaya and V. I. Parfenyuk
Institute of Solution Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ivanovo, Russia
Ivanovo State University of Chemical Engineering, Ivanovo, Russia
Received October 16, 2006; in final form, March 2007
Abstract-The possibility of cathodic deposition of copper-containing powders of nanosize dispersity from
solutions of copper dichloride in a mixed water3isopropanol solvent was studied.
By now, a large number of techniques for produc-
tion of nanomaterials with prescribed size, shape, and
other particle parameters have been developed .
All methods for synthesis of highly dispersed mate-
rials, including ultradispersed powders of metals and
metal-containing compounds, can be conditionally
subdivided into those of mechanical and condensation
types [4, 5]. The former involve comminution of start-
ing raw materials without, as a rule, changes in their
chemical composition. In processes of the latter type,
both the aggregative state and chemical composition
of the starting components change.
Powders of copper and copper oxides are of par-
ticular interest for chemical technology and industry.
Ultradispersed copper-containing powders can be used
as additives to metal-ceramic sealants and to lubri-
cants for various friction units .
A promising area of modern technologies is elec-
trochemical cathodic deposition of metal-containing
nanosize powders from electrolyte solutions .
In this technique, a metal and its compounds pass
from the dissolved state into a solid state in the form
of loose deposits. To important advantages of this
method belong the simplicity of the apparatus used
and the possibility of controlling the process by chang-
ing the electrical modes.
The formation of a cathodic deposit in electrolysis
is governed by the occurrence and competition of two
parallel processes: nucleation and dynamics of nucleus
growth. If the number of nucleation centers formed
exceeds that of developing centers, the resulting de-
posit is finely dispersed. Therefore, an important fac-
tor governing the mechanism and kinetics of these
reactions is the required balance of the rates of these
processes. A high dispersity of electrodeposited par-
ticles can be achieved in the presence of surfactants.
The effect of surfactants introduced into an electrolyte
is primarily manifested in a redistribution of the rates
of formation and growth of a new phase via blocking
of active centers and change in surface energies at
interfaces. Performing an electrochemical synthesis
at the limiting current density makes it possible to
recover metal-containing products from electrolyte
solutions directly as highly dispersed powder.
This study is concerned with the effect of organic
additives to an electrolyte on the dispersity of copper-
containing powders produced by electrochemical cath-
odic reduction from copper dichloride solutions with
a concentration of 0.1 mol kg
solvent (m) in mixed
water3isopropanol solutions of various compositions.
The electrochemical deposition of copper-contain-
ing powders was performed in a glass cell. A steel rod
served as a cathode. As anodes were used ruthenium-
titanium oxide plates. Current was switched on sev-
eral seconds after the electrodes were submerged in
the electrolyte. During this time, a thin homogeneous
layer of contact copper was formed, in which the rip-
ening of active centers and the subsequent growth of
ultradispersed cathodic deposits were considerably