ISSN 1021-4437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2008, Vol. 55, No. 5, pp. 712–715. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
Original Russian Text © E.G. Rudikovskaya, G.A. Fedorova, L.V. Dudareva, L.E. Makarova, A.V. Rudikovskii, 2008, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2008, Vol. 55, No. 5, pp. 793–
Temperature is a principal environmental cue deter-
mining plant growth, development, and distribution.
Investigation of plant tolerance to low temperature is
important for both fundamental and applied aspects.
Low temperature affects all physiological processes;
during early developmental phases, it exerts especially
strong action on further plant growth, development, and
Plant adaptation to temperature lowering includes
changes in numerous physiological and biochemical
processes. One of such adaptive responses is changes in
activities and de novo synthesis of some enzymes, such
as glycosidases, catalases, peroxidases, proteinases,
and others [2–4]. In addition, plant adaptation to both
low and high temperatures include adequate changes in
corresponding enzymes . Adaptive biochemical pro-
cesses are also changes in the lipid composition of cell
membranes and in the index of FA unsaturation, accu-
mulation of sugars and other metabolites [6–8]. Nonop-
timum temperatures affect the expression of genes for
main enzymes of phenolic compound (PC) biosynthe-
sis: phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, chalcone synthase,
and ﬂavanon-3-hydrolase, and this is reﬂected in the
composition of ﬂavonoids and phenolcarbonic acids in
plant tissues [9–11]. Antocyanidin accumulation was
detected in plants subjected to cold stress . There
are data that ﬂavans and antocyanidins accumulated
more rapidly in plants grown at elevated temperature
The investigation of the pathways for PC, ﬂavans in
particular, biosynthesis in the members of Legumin-
oceae family at lowered temperature is very important.
This is related to the speciﬁc capability of the members
of this family for symbiotic interactions with nodule
PCs play a decisive role in the sig-
nal transduction between the host plant and microor-
ganisms. In addition, speciﬁc PCs secreted by legume
roots into the rhizosphere induce chemoattraction of
microorganisms directly interacting with the rhizobial
protein NodD and indirectly inducing the synthesis of
Nod factors, thus being involved in nodule morphogen-
esis. Moreover, there are some data that PCs could
accumulate in symbiosomes and induce host-plant
defense response directed to the control of nodule for-
mation [14–16]. Flavans, especially their oligomers,
are known to play a defensive role during pathogenesis
. Some plants-symbionts accumulate PCs of ﬂavan
nature (ﬂavan-3-ols and ﬂavan-3,4-diols); however,
their functions are not studied properly [17–20].
The objective of this work was to analyze the effects
of growth temperature on the content and composition
of endogenous PCs in pea roots.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experiments were performed with the roots of eti-
olated pea (
L., cv. Marat) seedlings.
Seedlings were grown as described earlier .
Effect of Growth Temperature on the Composition
of Phenols in Pea Roots
E. G. Rudikovskaya
, G. A. Fedorova
, L. V. Dudareva
, L. E. Makarova
, and A. V. Rudikovskii
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Lermontova 132, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia;
Institute of Limnology, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
Received October 13, 2007
—It was shown that, in pea (
L.) roots, ﬂavans are a dominating component of the sol-
uble phenol fraction. In plants grown at low temperature (
), ﬂavan content during the early growth phase
was lower than in plants grown at
, but later it increased and was by 40% higher than in plants grown at
. Total phenol content in the two treatments differed insignificantly. Low growth temperature decreased
the content of some phenolic compounds in pea seedling roots.
Key words: Pisum sativum - growth temperature - phenolic compounds - ﬂavonoids - HPLC
: FA—fatty acid; PC—phenolic compounds.