ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2016, Vol. 89, No. 1, pp. 132−139. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2016.
Original Russian Text © L.K. Sal’keeva, A.A. Bakibaev, G.T. Khasenova, Ye.K. Taishibekova, L.M. Sugralina, Ye.V. Minaeva, A.K. Sal’keeva, 2016, published in
Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2016, V
ol. 89, No. 1, pp. 103−111.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Effect of Glycoluril and Its Derivatives on the Flame Resistance
and Physico-Mechanical Properties of Rubber
L. K. Sal’keeva
, A. A. Bakibaev
, G. T. Khasenova
, Ye. K. Taishibekova
L. M. Sugralina
, Ye. V. Minaeva
, and A. K. Sal’keeva
Buketov State University, ul. Universitetskaya 28, Karaganda, 470074 Kazakhstan
National Research Tomsk State University, pr. Lenina 36, Tomsk, 634050 Russia
Karaganda State Technical University, bul. Mira 56, Karaganda, 100027 Kazakhstan
Received November 24, 2015
Abstract—The effect of bicyclic bisureas (glycolurils) and their derivatives functionalized with hydroxymethyl,
halomethyl, and dimethoxyphoshorylmethyl groups on the ﬂ ame resistance and physico-chemical properties of
synthetic isoprene and divinyl rubbers was studied, and the procedures for preparing these agents were suggested.
The rubbers with the addition of the synthesized bicyclic bisureas demonstrated satisfactory levels of ﬂ ame re-
sistance and physico-mechanical parameters.
Imparting ﬂ ame resistance to materials of various
kinds, intended for various purposes, remains a topical
problem for a long period. Its urgency is caused by the
fact that many materials are sources of serious hazards
in cases of ﬁ re, being readily ignitable, favoring ﬂ ame
propagation, and releasing large amounts of toxic gases.
Fire retardants reducing the combustibility of rubbers
are known for a long time and are efﬁ ciently used today.
The mechanisms of the action of separate substances and
the synergistic effect of their combinations have been
interpreted [1, 2]. However, because of the diversity
of rubber grades and of ingredients and formulations
of rubber stocks, direct application of the available
data is impossible, and the performance of speciﬁ c ﬁ re
retardants should be evaluated experimentally in each
speciﬁ c case.
A promising line in the development of ﬂ ame-resistant
rubbers is introduction into elastomer compounds of
intumescent environmentally safe ﬁ reprooﬁ ng additives.
Their properties depend on the atomic ratio of carbon,
nitrogen, and phosphorus in their composition [3, 4].
The action of these substances is based on carbonization
of the surface of the burning material as a result of their
It is known that phosphorus-containing ﬁ reprooﬁ ng
agents transform in the course of thermal degradation
into (poly)phosphoric acid, which catalyzes the
dehydration of the polymeric substrate and leads to its
carbonization [3, 5].
The structure and properties of the synthesized
bicyclic bisurea derivatives were proved by IR and
NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental
The NMR spectra were recorded with Bruker DRX-
300 (operating frequency 300 MHz) and Jeol ECX-400
(operating frequency 400 MHz for
H and 100 MHz for
С) spectrometers relative to internal HMDS or TMS in
, or D
O [accuracy ±(0.1–0.2) ppm].
The mass spectra were taken with a Varian Saturn
The IR spectra were recorded with an FSM-1201
Fourier spectrometer in the range from 450 to 4000 cm
with 2 cm
and single scanning (measurement
uncertainty ±0.2 cm
). The samples were prepared as