1022-7954/01/3706- $25.00 © 2001
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2001, pp. 678–682. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 37, No. 6, 2001, pp. 825–830.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2001 by Kuklin, Kuklina.
The dermatoglyphic pattern is a complex surface
structure. The formation of this pattern, including the
ridge count, is thought to be controlled by a set of inde-
pendent genes. According to the hypothesis on poly-
genic inheritance of certain dermatoglyphic traits [1–3],
a set of three genes (loci
) are responsible
for the three types of dermatoglyphic patterns (arch,
loop, and whorl, respectively) on distal ﬁnger phalan-
ges. These genes are probably located in chromosome
groups D, E, and G. Sex chromosomes also inﬂuence
the dermatoglyphic pattern [4–10]. According to Pen-
rose , genes located in the X and Y chromosomes
may determine a decreased number of ridges (by 30
and 12, respectively).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We studied the types of dermatoglyphic patterns in
the ﬁngerprints, obtained with the use of printer’s ink,
of 871 subjects, including patients with monogenic der-
matoses and carriers of recessive genes of dermatoses.
The sample comprised 136 males and 288 females
with autosomal dominant ichthyosis, 153 patients
with X-linked ichthyosis and 123 of the mothers of the
latter patients (heterozygous carriers of the X-linked
ichthyosis gene), 24 males and 39 females with autoso-
mal recessive ichthyosiform erythroderma, 25 males
and 24 females with autosomal dominant palmoplantar
keratoderma, and 27 males and 32 females with autoso-
mal dominant keratosis follicularis (Darier’s disease).
The control group of dermatoglyphic patterns com-
prised ﬁngerprints of 100 males and 100 females with-
out hereditary skin diseases.
To describe the ridge patterns of the volar surfaces
of the distal ﬁnger phalanges, we used the system sug-
gested by Henry in 1934. We determined the pattern
types and counted the ridges on each digit and all digits
of each hand; in addition, the total ridge count was cal-
culated. The following types of ridge patterns were dis-
tinguished: arch (A), ulnar loop (L
), radial loop (L
and true and complex whorls (W).
Arch is a simple pattern consisting of ridges that
cross the ﬁnger pad in the transverse direction and
slightly curve distally.
Loop is a semiclosed curve in which the ridges
begin from one edge of the ﬁnger, run curving to the
other edge, and then return to the edge where they
begin. The loops that are open at the radial and ulnar
sides are called radial and ulnar loops, respectively.
Whorl is a closed pattern of concentric ridges.
The quantitative characteristic of the ridge pattern
of each ﬁnger (ridge count) was obtained by counting
the ridges from the periphery to the center of the pat-
tern. We also calculated the sums of ridge counts for
each hand and for both hands (the total ridge count).
The results obtained were tested for statistically sig-
niﬁcant differences from the control group using non-
parametric statistical methods and Fisher’s
The results obtained are shown in Tables 1 and 2 and
Figs. 1 and 2. As is seen from these data, X-linked ich-
thyosis was characterized by signiﬁcantly lower pro-
portion of arches on digits II, II, IV, and V of the left
hand (by 12.08, 8.35, 4.69, and 2.69%, respectively)
and digit II of the right hand (by 8.12%) compared to
the control group and by a complete absence of arches
on digits III, IV, and V of the right hand.
The lower proportion of arches in these patients was
accompanied by a signiﬁcantly increased proportion of
whorls on digits I, III, IV, and V of the left hand (by
10.87, 7.53, 11.14, and 6.03%, respectively) and digits
I and II of the right hand (by 18.82 and 14.37%, respec-
Effect of Genetic Background
on the Ratios between Different Types of Dermatoglyphic Patterns:
V. T. Kuklin and Z. V. Kuklina
Kazan State Medical Academy, Kazan, 420012 Tatarstan, Russia; fax: (3432) 38-84-72
Received July 20, 1999; in ﬁnal form, May 19, 2000
—The ratios between dermatoglyphic patterns of different types were studied in males and females
with and without hereditary diseases of the skin. It was found that ridge patterns of ﬁngers are determined by
special polygenes. Patients with monogenic dermatoses (X-linked ichthyosis and autosomal recessive ichthy-
osiform erythroderma) exhibited a suppressed formation of the loop pattern compared to control subjects.