1070-4272/05/7806-1027 + 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 6, 2005, pp. 1027!1030. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 6, 2005,
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Ginzburg, Tuichiev, Tabarov, Lavrent’ev, Melenevskaya, A. Pozdnyakov, O. Pozdnyakov,
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Effect of Fullerene C
on Structuring of Toluene
B. M. Ginzburg, Sh. Tuichiev, S. Kh. Tabarov, V. K. Lavrent’ev, E. Yu. Melenevskaya,
A. O. Pozdnyakov, O. F. Pozdnyakov, A. A. Shepelevskii, and L. A. Shibaev
Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Tajik State National University, Dushanbe, Tajikistan
Institute of Macromolecular Compounds, St. Petersburg, Russia
Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
Received June 9, 2004
Abstract-Toluene solutions of fullerene C
with concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.2 wt % were studied
by small-angle X-ray diffraction analysis. The radii of gyration of scattering elements were determined from
the small-angle diffraction patterns plotted in the Guinier coordinates.
Toluene is a solvent widely used for recovering ful-
lerenes from fullerene soot and for studying various
fullerene-containing systems. Mass spectrometric data
 showed that a certain fraction of toluene present in
a fullerene C
film is strongly retained when the film
is heated in a vacuum to the point of its breakdown
sublimation. Such a behavior of toluene
suggests that toluene strongly interacts with fullerene
and thus fullerene dissolved in it can strongly change
the structure of the solvent itself. In this paper, solu-
tions of fullerene C
in toluene were studied by small-
angle X-ray scattering. Previously, similar studies have
been performed with fullerenes C
in o-xylene [2, 3]. In these studies, nonuniform areas
were found in the entire concentration range examined.
From the authors’ viewpoint, the number of fullerene
molecules in the associate is no more than four. No
free single fullerene molecules were observed.
The measurements were carried out on a KRM-1
, Ni filter) with a slit collimation of
the primary X-ray beam; the width of the intensity
distribution in the primary beam was 5' near the pro-
file bottom of the corresponding curve. The scattering
range was from 15' to 2o. The error of the intensity
measurements did not exceed +2 pulse s
in the entire
scattering range studied, i.e., it was as low as 234%.
Rectangular cells were prepared from a 7.5310-mm
polymeric film. Empty cells showed no noticeable
scattering in the angle range studied. Then, the cells
were filled with a sample to be analyzed, sealed, and
placed in an evacuated chamber of the diffractometer.
The transmission measurements were carried out
at 25330oC. The cell with a solvent was placed at
the center of a goniometer perpendicularly to the pri-
mary beam, and diffraction pattern 1 was recorded.
Then, the sample was placed before the first slit and
the contour of the primary beam after passing through
the cell was recorded (diffraction pattern 2), and curve
2 was subtracted from diffraction pattern 1. These re-
sulting difference patterns are given as the experi-
mental curves I(s), where s =4psin(j/2)l, j is the
scattering angle, and l is the wavelength of the X-ray
radiation. Since the scattering angles are small, we
consider that s =2pj/l.
It should be noted that the scattering intensity in
curves 2 at 15' angle (scattering start) was similar
within the measurement error for both solvent and
solutions in the entire concentration range; as
a result, normalization of the curves to the same inten-
sity of the primary beam was unnecessary. Fullerene
(99.7%) obtained by the Huffman-Kraetschmer
method, was used to prepare solutions of fullerene
in toluene with the following concentrations:
0 (pure solvent), 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 wt %.