ISSN 1021-4437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2007, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 111–114. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2007.
Original Russian Text © L.A. Lapshina, A.V. Reunov, V.P. Nagorskaya, T.N. Zvyagintseva, N.M. Shevchenko, 2007, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2007, Vol. 54, No. 1,
A possibility of the use of ecologically safe com-
pounds able to stimulate plant resistance attracts the
attention of researchers working on the development of
measures against the plant pathogenic viruses [1–3].
Such compounds include various polysaccharides:
-D-glucans from fungi [4–7] and brown alga
11]; chitosan [12, 13]; oligosaccharides obtained from
xyloglucan  and galactoglucomannan ; and
-carraginan from red alga
It was shown [17, 18] that fucoidans, sulfated
polysaccharides from brown alga, demonstrated an
antiviral activity toward some human and animal
viruses. Untill recently, there have been no reports
about the inﬂuence of such polysaccharides on the
development of viral infections in higher plants. In our
work , we have shown for the ﬁrst time that
fucoidan from the brown alga
ited the accumulation of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
in tobacco leaves. The present paper demonstrates the
results of the electron-microscopic investigation of the
inﬂuence of fucoidan on the formation of TMV-speciﬁc
inclusions participating in the viral replication in the
cells of tobacco leaves .
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In our work, we used four-weeks-old tobacco plants
L.) of cv. Samsun grown in a
greenhouse. We selected four plants with similar mor-
phological characteristics (height, leaf arrangement,
number of leaf storeys, and size of leaves of the same
storey). A fucoidan preparation was isolated from
in the Laboratory of
Enzyme Chemistry of the Paciﬁc Institute of Bioor-
ganic Chemistry of the Far East Division of Russian
Academy of Sciences. It was
fated mainly at C2 position of fucose residues .
Inoculation of leaves was carried out using the ordinary
TMV strain obtained according to Otsuki et al. .
One young leaf (5 cm in length) was detached from
each of selected plants. Detached leaves were slit along
the midrib and sprayed with carborundum. Halves of
two leaves were inoculated with either a mixture of
TMV and fucoidan (experiment) or TMV alone (con-
trol); halves of two other leaves were treated with
fucoidan (experiment) or water (control) 24 h before
the inoculation. In all experiments, the concentrations
of TMV and fucoidan were equal to 1 mg/ml. Treated
leaves were washed with the running tap water and
placed into the humid chamber.
In four days after inoculation, we excised ﬁve small
tissue pieces from the middle part of each leaf half and
ﬁxed them for 3 h in the 6.5% glutaraldehyde solution
Effect of Fucoidan from Brown Alga
on a Formation of TMV-Specific Inclusions
in the Cells of Tobacco Leaves
L. A. Lapshina, A. V. Reunov, V. P. Nagorskaya, T. N. Zvyagintseva, and N. M. Shevchenko
Paciﬁc Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far East Division of Russian Academy of Sciences, pr. Stoletiya Vladivostoka 159,
Vladivostok, 690022 Russia;
fax: 7 (4232) 31-4050; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received May 11, 2006
—The effect of fucoidan (
-L-fucan), a sulfated polysaccharide from the brown alga
on the formation of specific granular and tubular inclusions induced by tobacco mosaic virus
(TMV) and consisted presumably of the virus-coded protein components of the viral replicase was investigated
in the TMV-infected leaves of tobacco (
L.). In four days after inoculation of the leaves with
a TMV preparation (1 mg/ml), the signature of infection in a presence of fucoidan (1 mg/ml) was a preferential
formation of intracellular granular inclusions, which were related to early stages of the virus reproduction.
When infected leaves were not treated with fucoidan, their cells contained mainly tubular inclusions, which
were presumably formed from the granular ones on the last stages of the infection process. These observations
demonstrated that fucoidan delayed the development of the TMV-induced infection.
Key words: Fucus evanescens - Nicotiana tabacum - tobacco mosaic virus - disease resistance - fucoidan
: TMV—tobacco mosaic virus.