REFRACTORIES IN HEATING UNITS
EFFECT OF FIRING FURNACE CONDITION
ON FIRED ANODE QUALITY
S. A. Zabolotnyi
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 8 – 10, May 2008.
Original article submitted January 22, 2008.
Firing of aluminum electrolyzer anodes in multichamber furnaces of the open type is considered. On the basis
of studying the thermal work of a firing furnace the main defects of furnace lining that arise during operation
and the reasons for their development are studied. The effect of furnace construction on production of finished
components from the point of view of quality, productivity, and correspondingly economic efficiency, is
analyzed in detail.
The most complex production process of manufacturing
aluminum electrolyzer anodes is firing of the compacted
“green” billets, as a result of which material should be
obtained with the required physicomechanical properties,
electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength and a
uniform defect-free structure. The property indices required
are achieved as a result of the maximum yield of coke
residue and high quality of the sintering process. The quality
of fired billets with uniform original properties after
compaction depends on their firing conditions, the rate and
uniformity of heat supply to the whole surface, the maximum
heating temperature, and cooling conditions. The state of the
firing furnace is of considerable significance.
Firing is performed in chamber furnaces of the open
type. Furnaces of this type are complex and very large heat
engineering units, for example, the structure of a 72 chamber
firing furnace has a lining volume of more than 14 thousand m
and it consists of more than 23 thousand tons of different
refractories and heat insulating materials. The working layer
of its lining is subject to mechanical, thermal and also
A furnace is a unit of 64 or 72 chambers, arranged in two
rows and between them connecting transitional (turning)
channels for successive passage of gas streams from one
chamber to another. Each of the chambers consists of 7 racks,
having the shape of rectangular boxes bounded from the
sides with partitions (flame walls), and over the ends by
transverse walls, and from below by a furnace bottom. A rack
serves as a vessel for loading anodes for firing.
The partitions have internal channels for passage of
furnace gases, that move successively over the partitions of
six chambers, during firing. Transfer of gases from one
chamber to another is accomplished through passage
channels in the transverse walls. Due to brick bridges and
vertical barriers, provided within the flame wall, there is
sinusoidal movement of gas and uniform heating of the side
surfaces of a heated barrier. Each rack has an automatic
heating system accomplished by means of burners in each
barrier. The overall form of a chamber furnace is shown in
The resulting thermal cycling technology for producing
fired anodes includes heating of the flame partitions,
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 49, No. 3, 2008
1083-4877/08/4903-0153 © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
ZAO Soyuzteplostroi, Russia.
Fig. 1. Overall view of an anode firing furnace.