1067-4136/05/3606- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2005, pp. 396–399. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 6, 2005, pp. 434–437.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Matyashenko, Shmakov, Konstantinov, Belogolova.
Fluorine derivatives belong to the group of the most
aggressive toxic compounds (Belogolova
The subsequent fate of pollutants that have entered an
ecosystem and their effects on this ecosystem are often
unknown. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to
analyze the effect of ﬂuorine and its accumulation in
the two larch species that are the main forest-forming
species in Eastern Siberia.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Trees growing under natural conditions on a ﬂuorite
deposit in Transbaikalia (
) and in a zone
affected by emissions from the aluminum plant at
Shelekhov, southwest of Irkutsk (
studied. To reveal individual features of plant response
to ﬂuorine at the cell level, in vitro cultures of larch cal-
lus were used.
The range of distribution and the amount of ﬂuorine
fallout from emissions of the aluminum plant were
determined from its content in snow. From 1997 to
2004, snow samples (15–20 kg) were taken along the
transect on test plots located at distances of 0.5 to 7 km
from the plant (Vasilenko
, 1985). Soil samples
were taken by horizons down to the bedrock. Fluorine
accumulation by plants was studied by years, in one- to
three-year-old branches and annual rings in trunk wood
separated into structural elements: bark (live and dead),
sapwood (external and internal parts), and heartwood.
The content of ﬂuorine in all samples was determined
Interspeciﬁc differences between
and intraspeciﬁc differences between indi-
vidual trees in ﬂuorine tolerance at the cell level were
estimated by the method of
plant tissue cultures.
Previously, we used this method to reveal individual
differences in callus formation in the Siberian stone
pine (Shmakov and Konstantinov, 2004) and to study
the response of larch callus lines to oxidative stress
induced by paraquat (Garnik
In experiments on assessing the viability of larch
callus cultures in ﬂuorine-containing media, we used
callus lines obtained from trees of one
ulation (ﬁve lines) and two
control population (six lines) and “ﬂuorite” population
(eight lines). For thousands of years, the “ﬂuorite” geo-
graphic population has been growing on soils with an
increased ﬂuoride content in the present-day area of the
Solonechnyi ﬂuorite mine in the Gazimur-Zavodskoi
district of Chita oblast (Rozhkov and Mikhailova, 1989).
The medium for control cultures was as follows:
mineral salts according to Murashige and Scoog (1962)
diluted by half, 2 mg/l thiamine, 80 mg/l inositol,
30 mg/l saccharose, 1 mg/l NAA (1-naphtyl acetic
acid), 0.2 mg/l BAP (6-benzyl aminopurine), and 7 g/l
agar. In experimental cultures, it was supplemented
with sodium ﬂuoride (4.75–14.25 mg/l). Calluses were
incubated under conditions of a 16-h photoperiod (illu-
mination intensity 1500 lx) at
. The duration
of each experiment corresponded to one cultivation
cycle (28 days). Experiments were performed in four to
ten biological replications for each line.
The activity of callus growth in ﬂuorine-containing
media was the basic parameter for assessing the effect
of ﬂuorine on plant cells. It was determined from the
relative increment of cultures, i.e., the ratio (in percent)
Effect of Ecological Factors on the Accumulation of Fluorine
(Rupr.) Rupr. and
in Eastern Siberia
G. V. Matyashenko
, V. N. Shmakov
, Yu. M. Konstantinov
, and G. A. Belogolova
Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Favorskogo 1a, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
Siberian Institute of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Siberian Division, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Lermontova 132, Irkutsk, 664033 Russia
Received February 15, 2005
—The accumulation of ﬂuorine in the trunk wood and branches of
growing on soils
with a naturally increased ﬂuoride content and of
growing in a zone affected by atmospheric emis-
sions from an aluminum plant has been studied. Based on results of
experiments, it is con-
cluded that larch trees manifest individual differences in their response to ﬂuorine.
: atmospheric pollution, ﬂuorine,
culture, ecosystem, Eastern Siberia.