Velocity measurements were made in two jet flows, the first exiting from a smooth contraction nozzle and the second from a long pipe with a fully developed pipe flow profile. The Reynolds number, based on nozzle diameter and exit bulk velocity, was the same (≃86,000) in each flow. The smooth contraction jet flow developed much more rapidly and approached self-preservation more rapidly than the pipe jet. These differences were associated with differences in the turbulence structure in both the near and far fields between the two jets. Throughout the shear layer for x<3d, the peak in the v spectrum occurred at a lower frequency in the pipe jet than in the contraction jet. For x≥3d, the peaks in the two jets appeared to be nearly at the same frequency. In the pipe jet, the near-field distributions of f(r) and g(r), the longitudinal and transverse velocity correlation functions, differed significantly from the contraction jet. The integral length scale L u was greater in the pipe jet, whereas L v was smaller. In the far field, the distributions of f(r) and g(r) were nearly similar in the two flows. The larger initial shear layer thickness of the pipe jet produced a dimensionally lower frequency instability, resulting in longer wavelength structures, which developed and paired at larger downstream distances. The regular vortex formation and pairing were disrupted in the shear layer of the pipe jet. The streamwise vortices, which enhance entrainment and turbulent mixing, were absent in the shear layer of the pipe jet. The formation of large-scale structures should occur much farther downstream in the pipe jet than in the contraction jet.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 17, 2002
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