ISSN 1021-4437, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2006, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 495–500. © MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica” (Russia), 2006.
Original Russian Text © N.A. Olenichenko, V.I. Ossipov, N.V. Zagoskina, 2006, published in Fiziologiya Rastenii, 2006, Vol. 53, No. 4, pp. 554–559.
Higher plants manifest a unique capability of the
synthesis of a large amount of diverse so-called second-
ary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds or
polyphenols [1, 2]. The latter are very widespread in the
plant kingdom and occur in all plant species. At present,
more then 9000 phenolic compounds were identiﬁed;
they include simple phenols, phenolcarbonic (hydroxy-
benzoic) acids, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, quinons,
ﬂavonoids, tannins, and lignin . The presence of aro-
matic rings and free hydroxyl groups in the structure
results in a high chemical activity of many phenolics.
Therefore, such compounds take part in plant defense
against various stress factors [2, 3]. One of these factors
is cold stress, which affects various crops inhabiting
Middle Russia, such as winter wheat . In spite of
numerous publications dedicated to studying wheat
metabolism, the data about the content and composition
of phenolic compounds in wheat are very scarce. It was
reported about the synthesis of
-coumaric, and ferulic acids in
shoots and roots of soft wheat seedlings [5, 6]. Their
level was higher in roots than in shoots . Another ten-
dency was observed for the total content of soluble phe-
nolic compounds: their level was higher in leaves than
in crowns and roots of winter wheat . The leaves
were characterized by a wider spectrum of polyphe-
nols. Thus, in crowns and roots, phenylpropanoids were
predominantly synthesized [5, 7], whereas leaves syn-
thesized also ﬂavonoids [8, 9].
Earlier, we showed that cold hardening promoted
the accumulation of phenolic compounds in winter
wheat leaves and changed their qualitative composition
. However, a detailed study of the phenolic complex
was not made.
The aim of this work was to compare the composi-
tion and content of particular phenolic compounds in
leaves of control and hardened winter wheat plants by
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Winter wheat (
frost-resistant cv. Moskovskaya 39) plants were used.
The seeds were sown in boxes ﬁlled with the mixture of
soddy-podzolic soil and sand (3 : 1) by the end of
August. The plants were grown in open ground until the
phenophase of thillering (45–60 days). Thereafter,
some boxes with plants partly hardened at around-zero
temperatures were transferred to a greenhouse with nat-
ural illumination and controlled temperature (around
) and left for dehardening for 14 days. These
plants resuming growth served as control plants. Other
boxes were left in a cold greenhouse at naturally
decreasing temperatures. Here, the plants completed
hardening during two weeks (experiment).
Phenolic compound estimation.
of phenolic compounds, plant leaves were extracted
with hot 70% ethanol. The total content of soluble phe-
nolics and ﬂavonoids in the plant-leaf extracts was esti-
mated spectrophotometrically [10, 11]. The calibration
curves were built with rutin. All analyzes were made in
Effect of Cold Hardening on the Phenolic Complex
of Winter Wheat Leaves
N. A. Olenichenko
, V. I. Ossipov
, and N. V. Zagoskina
Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Botanicheskaya ul. 35, Moscow, 127276 Russia;
fax: 7 (495) 977-8018; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Laboratory of Organic Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of Turku, FIN-20500 Turku, Finland
Received November 16, 2005
—The effect of hardening on the composition of phenolic compounds in winter wheat (
L.) leaves was studied. It was shown that green tissues contained mainly ﬂavonoids, especially ﬂavons
(C- and O-glycosides of apigenin and luteolin), and also ferulic acid derivatives. Among ﬂavons, derivatives of
luteolin dominated, including isoorientin, which comprised approximately a half of the content of all identiﬁed
phenolic compounds. Low temperature induced the accumulation of phenolic compounds in winter wheat
leaves, whereas their qualitative composition was not practically changed.
Key words: Triticum aestivum - low temperature -phenolic compounds - ﬂavons - HPLC
: POL—peroxidation of lipids.