1067-4136/04/3504- © 2004
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2004, pp. 214–219. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 4, 2004, pp. 249–254.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2004 by Kishchenko.
Increasing environmental pollution makes it neces-
sary increase work on afforestation and landscaping.
Most conifer species indigenous to the taiga zone of
Russia poorly tolerate increased concentrations of
gases and other airborne pollutants (Shkutko, 1991),
whereas some species of the genus
geographic regions are more resistant to these factors.
According to Kalutskii and Bolotov (1983), pine spe-
cies adequately chosen for cultivation under new eco-
logical conditions often exceed the aboriginal species
in productivity. In this context, their introduction and an
assessment of its results are of interest.
The degree of correspondence between the rhythms
of plant growth and development and the dynamics of
ecological factors is one of the main criteria for such an
assessment (Lapin, 1967). The seasonal growth rhythm
is an integrated index characterizing plant adaptation to
environmental conditions and the degree to which these
conditions correspond to the biological requirements of
a given species (Loginov, 1980; Shestopalova, 1982).
In the Russian scientiﬁc literature dealing with the
seasonal growth of shoots and needles in pine, attention
is focused on the aboriginal species
(Smirnov, 1961, 1964; Sennov, 1968; Akhmerov, 1969;
Elagin, 1976; Kishchenko, 1978; Shestopalova, 1982;
Plotnikova, 1983; Kishchenko and Grudinin, 1985;
Potapova, 1985). Species of the genus
in northwestern Russia have not been studied in this
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Studies were performed for three years (1998–2000)
in the Botanical Garden of Petrozavodsk State Univer-
sity, on the northern shore of Petrozavodsk Bay, Lake
Onega (the middle taiga zone). Representatives of four
introduced species of the genus
L. (age 26 yr, height 6.8 m), Swiss
Mill. (age 26 yr, height
1.5 m), Japanese stone pine
(Pall.) Regel (age
38 yr, height 1.2 m), and Siberian stone pine
Du Tour. (age 33 yr, height 8.2 m)—were compared
with the aboriginal Scotch pine
26 yr, height 8.8 m).
The growth of second-order axial shoots of the cur-
rent year was studied by measuring their length in the
southern sector of tree crowns at a height of 1–1.5 m
from the moment of bud swelling to the establishment
of wintering buds. The length of needles was measured
from the moment of their segregation to complete ces-
sation of growth. Measurements were made every two
to three days. The sample size was 25 shoots and nee-
dles from each tree. Daily increment was determined as
the difference in shoot (needle) length between two
measurements, divided by the number of days in this
period (Molchanov and Smirnov, 1967).
Climatic data were obtained from the Sulazhgor-
skaya Weather Station (Petrozavodsk Hydrometeoro-
logic Observatory) located 3 km southwest of the
Botanical Garden. All the samples were tested for cor-
respondence to the law of normal distribution. Correla-
tion coefﬁcients and differences between mean values
were tested for statistical signiﬁcance. The elementary
statistics obtained showed that the accuracy of the
experiment was relatively high (4–5%) and the varia-
tion coefﬁcient ranged from 13 to 17%.
Effect of Climatic Factors on the Growth
of Representatives of the Genus
under Conditions of Introduction
I. T. Kishchenko
Petrozavodsk State University, pr. Lenina 33, Petrozavodsk, 185640 Russia
Received March 19, 2003
—Four introduced and one aboriginal species of the genus
L. have been studied in the middle
taiga subzone of southern Karelia. Signiﬁcant interspeciﬁc differences in the dates of onset, cessation, and peak
of the growth of shoots and needles have been revealed. It has been shown that their annual increment depends
on the rate of growth, rather than on its duration. The dynamics of shoot and needle growth in introduced and
aboriginal species, though largely similar, differ in some respects. These differences reﬂect species-speciﬁc
responses to hydrothermal conditions in a certain growing season.
: introduction, pine, shoots, needles, growth, climatic factors.