ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2014, Vol. 87, No. 10, pp. 1489−1497. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2014.
Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose Viscosity
on the Size of Turmeric Extract Nanoparticles
Sa-Ad Riyajan and Janthanipa Nuim
Department of Materials Science and Technology, Natural Product Research Center, Faculty of Science,
Prince of Songkhla University, Songkhla 90112, Thailand
Received October 27, 2014
Abstract—The turmeric extract nanoparticles were synthesized by complexation involving modiﬁ ed carboxyl-
methyl cellulose (MCMC) and calcium ions. The effect of viscosity of carboxylmethyl cellulose (CMC) solution
on the particle size of turmeric extract nanoparticle was investigated. Firstly, MCMC viscosity decreases with
the increase of H
content (as observed from weight ratio between MCMC and CMC) due to chain scission.
The chemical structure of CMC was slightly altered after modiﬁ cation as conﬁ rmed by ATR-FTIR and XRD.
The parameters affecting the nanoparticle size were investigated using Zetasizer. The resulting nanoparticle size
decreased with the increase in the added CaCl
amount up to the optimal level as observed from dynamic viscos-
ity measurements due to the agglomeration of MCMC chains. Moreover, the nanoparticle size was reduced with
increased content of turmeric extract dissolved in ethanol since ethanol is a poor solvent for CMC. However,
the nanoparticle size increased with the increase of MCMC concentration due to the growth of MCMC dynamic
viscosity. The Zeta potential of nanoparticles reaches the maximum at the lowest CaCl
concentration. After dry-
ing, the aggregation of nanoparticles appeared as observed by SEM and TEM. Finally, the obtained nanoparticles
are promising for colon cancer therapy as shown by 98–99% inhibition of colon cancer in the performed tests.
* The text was submitted by the authors in English.
Nowadays, polymer hydrogels are widely used in
elds such as medicine [1–2], agriculture  and
environment protection  owing to their high absorp-
tion of lar
ge amounts of water without dissolving. Here,
we use sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) as a
water soluble derivative of cellulose [5–6] for obtain-
ing polymer hydrogels. The chemical structure of CMC
consists of carboxylic group, therefore, it also pos-
sesses good complexation ability for some metal ions,
such as Cu
 and Pb
advantages of CMC include low toxicity and reduced
ageing. We are interested in using CMC complexation
to provide a polymer matrix for encapsulat-
ing turmeric extract. In this work, we study the effect
of CMC viscosity on the size of nanoparticles formed
by encapsulated extract of turmeric, a plant cultivated
in most tropical countries. In the previous work the
preparation of capsule from CMC was studied. For
example, CMC was used to produce the multilayer
microcapsules using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of
natural polysaccharides (sodium alginate and chitosan)
particles, following with core removal .
The stability of the microcapsules was effectively im-
proved by cross-linking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde.
The CMC silver nanocomposite ﬁ lm was made from
CMC, N,N-1-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker
and silver nitrate solution to encapsulate the curcumin
. The results showed that the encapsulation of
curcumin increased with CMC content and addition of
silver nanoparticles enhanced curcumin encapsulation
due to enhanced interparticle interactions. A possible
application of this work is the development of novel
antimicrobial ﬁ lms for preventing/treating infections.
Since turmeric contains curcumin, it is also promising