EFFECT OF CARBON-CONTAINING ADDITIONS
ON PERICLASE-CARBON REFRACTORY PROPERTIES
S. I. Borovik,
G. A. Lysova,
and A. M. Chuklai
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 20 – 23, May 2011.
Original article submitted January 2, 2011.
Results are provided for a study of the effect of pitch additions of a different nature on binder properties and
refractory material quality in the production of periclase-carbon refractories. The desirability is established of
using coal-tar and petroleum pitches as a carbonizing agent for refractory material.
Keywords: phenol powder binder (PPB), pitch, periclase-carbon refractories, functional groups, periclase,
heat resistance, slag resistance.
The problem of improving the operating life of
periclase-carbon refractories, used in steel-smelting produc-
tion, remains important. A promising direction for resolving
this problem is carbonization of refractory material. Carbon
may be introduced in solid form (coke, pitch, carbides,
graphite), as a liquid (technical lignosulfonate, resins, bitu-
men, ethylene glycol), and as gas (firing in a reducing atmo-
sphere, treatment with flue gases). In solid form carbon en-
ters as a filler and cement, and in a liquid form as a binder.
Use of pitch as a carbon addition has a number of advan-
tages with respect to other carbon-containing materials, since
it has chemical affinity with a phenol binder, high yield of
coke residue during carbonization, and an ordered crystalline
coke structure [1, 2], in contrast to PPB (powder phenol
binder), and a final solid heat treatment product that is dis-
persed colloidal carbon.
Pitch is a residual product of heat treatment of the resin
of bituminous coals, shales, oil fractions, and it is a complex
polydispersed system of highly condensed carbo- and
heterocyclic compounds and products of their compaction,
with a differing degree of aromatic nature, composition,
properties, molecular structure, and relationship towards sol-
vents . Components of pitch, distinguished by a high reac-
tion capacity on heating, have a capacity for polyconden-
sation reaction with accumulation of high-molecular com-
paction products. Coke, formed as a result of pitch carbon-
ization, has high strength and thermal conductivity, increased
chemical resistance and low thermal expansion . Introduc-
tion of pitch into the composition of periclase-carbon refrac
tories changes the behavior of PPB during carbonization and
chemical reaction of a composite binder with the periclase
surface, which depends to a considerable extent on the reac-
tion capacity of pitch and markedly affects the mechanical,
physicochemical, and thermal properties of PPB and the
filler system as a whole .
The aim of this work is to study the possibility of using
domestic pitches (coal tar, petroleum, and shale) compared
with Carbores pitch from the firm Rutgers, Germany, as a
carbonising agent for periclase-carbon refractories. Analysis
of the chemical composition and production properties of the
pitches mentioned (Tables 1, 2) indicate that Carbores pitch
has the maximum degree of condensation capacity, and this
is indicated by the value of the atomic ratio of the hydrogen
and carbon content, and as a consequence the maximum coke
residue compared with domestic pitches with comparable
values of sulfur and resin substance content. Test samples of
domestic pitches are less condensed, particularly pitch based
on resin of shale coking. In addition, coal tar and shale
pitches contain a greater amount of benz(a)pyrene and resin
substances. A high heteroatom content is noted for shale
In view of the fact that the activity of pitch depends on
its chemical composition , including presence of
surfactant functional groups, capable of reacting with a filler
with formation of thick spatial carbon network , quantita-
tive and qualitative analyses were performed for the content
of functional groups in pitches and phenol binder. Presence
of acid groups in pitches is due primarily to presence of
hydroxyl (phenol) and carboxyl groups. The main groups are
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 3, September, 2011
1083-4877/11/05203-0182 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
GOUVPO South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia.