Wakes behind heated cylinders, circular, and square have been experimentally investigated at low-Reynolds numbers. The electrically heated cylinder is mounted in a vertical airflow facility such that buoyancy aids the inertia of main flow. The operating parameters, i.e., Reynolds number and Richardson number are varied to examine flow behavior over a range of experimental conditions from forced to mixed convection regime. Laser schlieren-interferometry has been used for visualization and analysis of flow structures. Complete vortex shedding sequence has been recorded using a high-speed camera. The results on detailed dynamical characteristics of vortical structures, i.e., their size, shape and phase, Strouhal number, power spectra, convection velocity, phase shift, vortex inception length, and fluctuations are reported. On heating, alteration of organized (coherent) structures with respect to shape, size and their movement is readily perceived from instantaneous Schlieren images before they reduce to a steady plume. For both cylinders, Strouhal number shows a slow increase with an increase in Richardson number. At a critical value, there is complete disappearance of vortex shedding and a drop in Strouhal number to zero. The corresponding spectra evolve from being highly peaked at the vortex shedding frequency to a broadband appearance when vortex shedding is suppressed. The geometry of vortex structures transforms to a slender shape before shedding is suppressed. At this heating level, absence of multiple peaks in power spectra at cylinder centerline indicates absence of interaction between opposite shear layers. The convection velocity of vortices increases in stream wise direction to an asymptotic value and its variation is a function of Richardson number. The convection speed abruptly falls to zero at critical Richardson number. The phase difference of shed vortices between upstream and downstream location increases with an increase in Richardson number. Velocity profiles show an increase in fluid speed and beyond the critical point, buoyancy forces add enough momentum to cancel momentum deficit due to the cylinder. Overall, the combined effect of temperature gradient on the separating shear layer velocity profile in near field and vortical structures interaction in far field influences wake instability of a heated cylinder.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 15, 2007
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