EFFECT OF ALUMINUM-MAGNESIUM ANTIOXIDANT ON
PERICLASE-CARBON OBJECT PROPERTIES
I. D. Kashcheev
and S. A. Pomortsev
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 17 – 20, August, 2012.
Original article submitted April 13, 2012.
The effect of fraction composition of aluminum-magnesium antioxidant with a Al:Mg ratio of 1:1 on some
periclase-carbon object properties and their relationship towards highly basic slag are studied. It is established
that introduction into the composition of periclase-carbon charges of aluminum-magnesium alloy in an
amount of 5% most effectively protects carbon in the refractory, reducing the amount of the decarburized area,
and increasing ultimate strength in compression for objects to 36.7 MPa after coking firing.
Keywords: antioxidant, periclase-carbon objects, antioxidant fractional composition.
In contemporary steel smelting and steel casting produc-
tion there is marked toughening of service conditions for re-
fractory objects and an increased requirement for cast steel
quality. There has been a significant increase in output of
carbon-containing refractories, among which a leading role
in contemporary metallurgy undoubtedly applies to
periclase-carbon, used for lining converters, electric fur-
naces, steel casting ladles, vacuum-degassing units, etc.
These materials are used everywhere for lining converters,
i.e., in Japan, USA, European and other countries. Japanese
specialists assume that in spite of competition from other
materials, periclase-carbon refractories will be used in steel
smelting production in the future .
Refractory producers are changing to production of
periclase objects with use of pure materials, such as fuzed
periclase, high-purity graphite, binder with a high coke resi
due; antioxidants are used everywhere. The main problem in
producing carbon-containing refractories is a reduction in
their wear, caused by carbon oxidation [2, 3]. Research in
this field is aimed mainly at developing and preparing new
refractory mixes containing highly effective, on one hand,
and inexpensive on the other hand, antioxidants.
The antioxidants used are materials having higher affin
ity for oxygen under service conditions than carbon. In arti
cles [4, 5] it is noted that the role of these additives does not
only come down to participation in processes reducing oxy
gen partial pressure. They also participate in phase formation
at a refractory surface, providing conditions for forming new
structures with increased strength and corrosion properties.
This relates primarily to readily oxidizable metals (alumi-
num, magnesium, etc.), two- and three-component alloys, or
their oxygen-free compounds (carbides, borides, etc.)
[6 – 10]. Reaction of antioxidants with oxygen within the
composition of a carbon-containing mix is controlled by
mechanisms in solid-gas, melt-gas, and solid-liquid-gas sys-
Research shows that compared with standard refractory
objects without antioxidants, containing 18% graphite, the
wear rate for experimental refractories with addition of alu
minum powder is less by a factor of 1.2 – 1.3, and is
1.3 – 2.0 mm per melt . As is well known, addition of
aluminum metal suppresses carbon oxidation due to a chemi
cal process, including the reaction
Al CO Al O C+= +
However, aluminum metal may react with CaO, within
the slag composition, with formation of a readily melting
compound, and this will reduce corrosion resistance .
Metallic Mg, evaporating in the initial heating stage,
forms a dense layer of MgO close to an object surface pre
venting oxygen penetration into refractory material .
The effect on properties of periclase-carbon refractories
of a combined addition of aluminum and magnesium with a
constant amount of aluminum has been studied in , and
the magnesium-containing addition used was an alloy of
magnesium with aluminum. With an increase in the amount
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 53, No. 4, November, 2012
1083-4877/12/05304-0238 © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York
From materials of the International Conference of Refractory
Specialists and Metallurgists (March 29 – 30, 2012, Moscow).
FGAOUVPO Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
OAO Magnitogorsk Metallurgical Combine, Magnitogorsk, Russia.