1070-4272/05/7809-1512C2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 78, No. 9, 2005, pp. 1512!1516. Translated from Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, Vol. 78, No. 9,
2005, pp. 1537!1541.
Original Russian Text Copyright + 2005 by Ishkov, Sagalakov.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
Effect of Active Fillers on Properties
of Heat-Resistant Composites
A. V. Ishkov and A. M. Sagalakov
Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia
Received December 6, 2004
Abstract-The effect of active fillers such as titanium nitrides TiN
, carbides TiC
, and carbonitrides TiC
(0.5 < x or x + y < 1.0) on properties of polymeric composites based on thermostable binders PAIS-104,
SFP-012 AK-30, and ED-20 is studied.
Active efforts are made today in developing new
polymeric composites (PCs) representing both individ-
ual macromolecular compounds and polymer blends
demonstrating not only additive, but also extraadditive
Additives introduced into PCs to modify their
physical and mechanical characteristics such as heat
resistance, conductivity, strength, and plasticity are
mostly referred to as active fillers.
The activity of one or another dispersed filler
strongly depends on its specific surface area ,
since this characteristic controls the surface-modified
fraction of the polymer. Additional contribution to
the activity of the filler could be caused by the crystal-
chemical defectiveness of its surface.
Introduction of many of the existing active fillers
in a polymer matrix allows preparation of materials
combining a number of useful performance character-
istics. Such fillers are known as multifunctional .
Presently, one of the most widely spread techniques
for preparation of active compounds is self-propagat-
ing high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The SHS tech-
nology allows simple and rapid synthesis of various
classes of active compounds .
As active fillers for PCs, of some interest are in-
clusion compounds based on d elements of Groups
IV3VI with nonmetals such as carbon, nitrogen, oxy-
gen, boron, etc. In addition to high refractoriness
(280033400 K), many of them are characterized by
high strength and electrical conductivity. Therefore,
their use allows preparation of novel advanced PCs.
In this study we examined the effect of active
fillers on the properties of several heat-resistant
As multifunctional fillers we examined active Ti
compounds with nitrogen and carbon, classified with
Titanium nitrides TiN
(0.5 < x < 1) were prepared
by the reaction of Ti powder (PTOM grade) with ni-
trogen gas in an autothermal flow reactor in the SHS
mode at a controlled nitrogen consumption. Titanium
(0.5 < x < 1) were also prepared in the
SHS mode by combustion of a mixture of Ti powder
(PTK grade) with carbon black (PM-50 grade) under
argon. Titanium carbonitrides TiC
(x + y < 1) were
synthesized by combustion of a mixture of Ti powder
(PTK) with butadiene3acrylonitrile rubber of various
grades under nitrogen. The composition of the prod-
ucts was determined by elemental and X-ray diffrac-
tion analyses. For synthesis of composites we used the
<100-mm fraction of the active Ti compounds.
As a polymer matrix we used thermosetting poly-
aminoimide binder PAIS-104, rubber3resin binder
SFP-012 AK-30, and epoxy3diphenylolpropane resin
PAIS-104 binder (Karbolit Joint-Stock Company,
Kemerovo, Russia) [TU (Technical Specifications)
6-05-231-192379] is a powdered oligomer with a
mean molecular weight of (134) 010
, free amino
group content <5%, dropping point 103oC, and gela-
tion time 180 s. SFP-012 AK-30 binder was prepared
at a pilot plant by combined coagulation of phenol3
formaldehyde and rubber (SKN-26) latexes. ED-20
resin [GOST (State Standard) 10587372] was cured
with 2% polyethylenepolyamine (PEPA).
The composites were prepared by hot pressing of