Exp Fluids (2009) 46:747 DOI 10.1007/s00348-009-0663-0 Graham Taylor Æ Michael Triantafyllou Æ Cam Tropea Published online: 28 April 2009 Springer-Verlag 2009 This special issue on Animal Locomotion: The Physics which has allowed new questions to be asked, for example, of Flying follows a previous special issue of Experiments about the detailed wake structures of birds and bats, or of in Fluids on Animal Locomotion: The Hydrodynamics the importance of tandem wing interactions and aeroelastic of Swimming (Volume 43, No. 5, November 2007). As deformation in insects. The volume therefore begins with a pointed out in the Editorial at that time, the principles of review article on PIV-Based Investigations of Animal ﬁsh and bird locomotion hold a special place in the ﬁeld of Flight (Spedding and Hedenstrom). Other more classical biomimetics, because they are intriguingly different from techniques, such as smoke visualization and direct force or the engineering principles applied in ships and airplanes. pressure measurements retain an important role in cases For many reasons, an experimental approach is often the where PIV is impractical or uninformative, and all feature most appropriate methodology to assess forces and energy in this volume accordingly. expended at realistic Reynolds numbers. This holds as Many fundamental questions remain, and many more much for ﬂying animals as it does for swimming animals, will doubtless arise, as an ever wider range of species and and similar experimental challenges apply—studying systems is studied. Here, in a single volume are measure- tethered as opposed to free ﬂight, or studying the ﬂow ments from multiple species of birds, bats and insects, around robotic models as opposed to real animals. offering a glimpse of the future possibilities opened by a From a biological perspective, the emphasis in experi- comparative experimental approach, which asks not only mental research of ﬂying animals has shifted in recent how the aerodynamic principles operate, but also how they years from an exploratory quest to identify ‘‘novel’’ vary systematically with scale, form and function. mechanisms of unsteady lift production—clap and ﬂing, In preparing this special issue a special thanks goes out leading-edge vortices, rotational mechanisms, wake cap- to all the authors and referees who made a great effort to ture—to more detailed examinations of the underlying ﬂow deliver their manuscripts, reviews and revisions in a timely physics. This shift has been enabled in large part by the manner. Furthermore, it has been a pleasure to work widespread availability of Particle Image Velocimetry, together with the staff at Springer-Verlag, who helped coordinate the production of all contributions into a single volume. G. Taylor (&) Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org M. Triantafyllou MIT, Mechanical and Ocean Engineering, Cambridge, USA e-mail: email@example.com C. Tropea Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Aerodynamics, TU Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 28, 2009
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