1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D), metam sodium (MS), and dazomet (DZ) are widely used as preplant soil fumigants to solve soilborne problems. To provide a more scientific and accurate evaluation of 1,3-D, MS, and DZ toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida, modified artificial soil test and natural soil test were studied. The suitable soil moisture to maintain over 90% survival of the earthworms after 4 weeks of treatment in an enclosed system for modified artificial soil test and natural soil test were 26.9 to 86.4% of water-holding capacity (WHC) and 66.2 to 84.3% of WHC, respectively. The optimal soil moisture levels for modified artificial soil test and natural soil test (75 and 55% of WHC, respectively) were finally used to evaluate the toxicity of 1,3-D, MS, and DZ on earthworms. Each desiccator with 10 earthworms and natural or artificial soil was stored at 20 ± 1 °C under constant light of 400 to 800 lx for 2 weeks. The modified artificial soil test showed LC50 values for 1,3-D, MS, and DZ of 3.60, 1.69, and 5.41 mg a.i. kg−1 soil, respectively. The modified natural soil test of the fumigants showed similar LC50 values of 2.77 and 0.65 mg a.i. kg−1 soil, except for DZ at 0.98 mg a.i. kg−1 soil. The present study confirms that both modified artificial soil test and modified natural soil test offer standard methods for acute toxicity test of 1,3-D, MS, and DZ on the earthworms and scientific evidences for assessing the effects of soil fumigants on non-target organisms in the soils.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 1, 2017
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