ECOLOGICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS
OF THE USE OF SALT ALUMINUM SLAGS IN THE PRODUCTION
OF CERAMIC ACID-RESISTANT MATERIALS
V. Z. Abdrakhimov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 3, pp. 44 – 48, March 2010.
Original article submitted February 24, 2009.
Studies show that after firing at 950°C salt aluminum slags are considerably enriched with aluminum oxide
> 70%) that makes it possible to use them as a shortening material instead of chamotte. Use of fired
alumina salt slags promotes a considerable improvement in the physicomechanical and chemical properties of
Keywords: wastes, utilization, environmental protection, nonferrous metallurgy, acid-resistant materials, salt
aluminum slags, clay part of zircon-ilmenite ore gravitation tailings (ZIG), chamotte, chemical composition,
element-by-element chemical composition, metallographic analysis, x-ray analysis, physicomechanical and
Every year in various branches of industry an enormous
amount of waste materials is accumulated. Their disposal
and storage consumes 8 – 10% of the cost production [1, 2].
Use of waste materials is economically beneficial since it
avoids expenditure on geological survey work, and on the
construction and operation of quarries; in the production of
ceramic materials there is a reduction in fuel expenditure, a
reduction in starting costs, special capital investment and
also areas occupied by dumps. In addition, use of waste
products is one of the effective methods for saving natural
materials. Simultaneously there is utilization of associated
products and this makes a contribution to environmental pro
In Russia a special position is occupied by the mining
and metallurgical complex whose production comprises the
basis of the economy and a significant part of exports. In ad
dition, currently there is a marked reduction in the reserves
of high quality ores, a deterioration in mining and geological
conditions for developing deposits. In the last 20 – 25 years
the main metal content in ores has decreased by a factor of
1.5 – 1.6 and the proportion of ores that are difficult to con
centrate has increased from15 to 45% [3, 4]. At the same
time in nonferrous metallurgy enterprises an enormous
amount of waste products has been accumulated, i.e. more
than five billion tons.
Dumps of technogenic raw material (waste products)
from nonferrous metallurgy are currently one of the main
contaminants of nature by heavy metals [5, 6]. With access to
the water ecosystem due to atmospheric precipitation of
heavy metals over a prolonged period they remain in water
and enter into reaction with other components of the water
medium, forming hydrated ions, oxyhydrates, ion pairs,
complex inorganic and organic compounds, etc. The specific
form of existence of metals depends on the nature of ions and
molecules, competing for the place of a ligand, pH, tempera
ture, and ionic medium.
Currently within the territory of the Russian Federation
about 80 billion tons of industrial wastes have been accumu
lated and they occupy almost 300 thousand hectares of useful
land [1, 5, 6]. Every year more than 2000 hectares of land are
set aside for storing waste materials. In some cases waste oc
cupies valuable agricultural land, that has an ecological ef
fect on the adjacent regions. The degree of reprocessing of
technogenic raw material is 70 – 80% of its output; the rest is
transferred into a series of wastes whose rational field of ap
plication as a rule is undetermined.
Production of ceramic materials is one of the most mate
rial consuming branches of the national economy, and there
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 51, No. 2, 2010
1083-4877/10/5102-00121 © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Samara State Architectural Building University, Samara, Russia.