The administration of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) within 2 days after the onset of symptoms (early NAI therapy) has been shown to reduce mortality in adult patients with severe influenza. However, there is no sufficiently solid evidence supporting the effectiveness of early NAI therapy on mortality. We reviewed the clinical data from 506 adult patients who were hospitalized for influenza between March 2010 and March 2014, to investigate the impact of early NAI therapy on mortality. Nearly one-third of the study patients were infected with influenza B (influenza A, influenza B, and co-infection of both in 68.8%, 28.1%, and 3.2%, respectively), and were diagnosed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (33.6%). Less than half (233, 46.0%) had received early NAI therapy. Patients with early NAI therapy were admitted to the hospital earlier, more frequently infected with influenza A, and more frequently diagnosed using rapid influenza detection tests compared to those without early NAI therapy. Although patients without early NAI therapy presented with more serious clinical manifestations, such as an initial symptom of dyspnea, pneumonia, and intensive care unit admission, than those with early NAI therapy, the in-hospital mortality of the former (2.9%, 8/273) did not differ from that of the latter (3.4%, 8/233) (p = 0.75). We did not find a reduction in mortality associated with early NAI therapy in adult patients hospitalized for influenza. Further clinical studies including a large number of influenza B-infected patients with virus identification using PCR methodology rather than viral culture may be required to confirm the beneficial impact of early NAI therapy on mortality.
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology Infectious Diseases – Springer Journals
Published: Apr 18, 2017
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