1067-4136/05/3604- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 4, 2005, pp. 239–242. Translated from Ekologiya, No. 4, 2005, pp. 264–268.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Yudina, Maksimova.
Small cranberry, a valuable berry and medicinal
plant, grows in bogs of different types and in swamp
forests. Its berries are in great demand and are collected
in large amounts due to their high nutrient value and
storage life. Analysis of published data and our studies
show that fruiting in cranberry depends on phyto-
cenotic conditions, but meteorological factors (air tem-
perature, precipitation, late spring and early autumn
frosts) have a stronger effect (Cherkasov
, 1986; Alekseeva, 2000).
The yield of cranberry reaches the highest values
(500–900 kg/ha) in the Komi Republic, being slightly
lower (110–623 kg/ha) in Arkhangelsk, Kirov, Vologda,
Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Tver, and Nizhni Novgorod
, 1981). In Karelia, it varies in
different years and habitats from 10 to 1700 kg/ha
(Elina, 1971; Elina and Kuznetsov, 1975; Yudina
1986; Tokarev, 1998). Because of such great ﬂuctua-
tions of yield from year to year, long-term observations
are necessary for determining the actual stock of berries
in the republic.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The yielding capacity of small cranberry was stud-
ied in the Nenazvannoe Bog (southern Karelia) in three
permanent sampling plots with different phytocenotic
conditions, from 1975 to 2002. Plot I was established in
the mesooligotrophic hummock bog facies (site)
Sphagneta fusci + S. angustifolii
Cranberry grew on
hummocks (20–30 cm high) formed of
, which occupied
Bog facies is understood according to Lopatin (1954). The names
of mosses and higher plants are given according to Ignatov and
Afonina (1992) and Cherepanov (1995), respectively.
approximately 36% of the facies area. The herb–dwarf
shrub layer with 15–20% coverage was dominated by
, bog rosemary
, and leatherleaf
The groundwater level was 30–50 cm below
the hummock surface. The 0–20 cm peat layer consisted
of high-bog sphagnum (fuscum) peat with 5% degree of
decomposition, deﬁcient in nutrients (Table 1).
Plot II was in the mesotrophic hummock bog facies
Sphagneta angustifolii + S. fallaxii, where ﬂat spaces
and hummocks (8–10 cm high) accounted for approxi-
mately 60 and 40%, respectively. The herb–dwarf shrub
layer with 25–30% coverage was dominated by small
cranberry, leatherleaf, sedge
, and Arctic
The groundwater level was
20 cm below the moss surface. The 0–20 cm peat
layer consisted of transitional sphagnum peat with 5%
degree of decomposition and typical agrochemical
characteristics (Table 1).
Plot III was in the weakly forested mesotrophic
hummock bog facies Sphagneta ﬂexuosi + S. angusti-
folii. The tree layer was presented by pine
with crown density less than 0.1 and tree
height 2–2.5 m. Hummocks 18–48 cm in height occu-
pied 67% of the total area. The total coverage of the
herb–dwarf shrub layer varied from 10 to 35%; small
cranberry, Arctic birch, leatherleaf, and buck bean
dominated in this layer. The
groundwater level varied from 18 to 48 cm below the
moss surface under hummocks and from 3 to 7 cm
between hummocks. The degrees of decomposition of
complex high-bog sphagnum peat in hummocks and
transitional sphagnum peat in depressions were 5 and
10%, respectively. Judging by agrochemical parame-
ters (Table 1), peat in this facies was relatively rich in
Dynamics of Yielding Capacity of Small Cranberry
in Southern Karelia
V. F. Yudina and T. A. Maksimova
Institute of Biology, Karelian Research Center,
Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Pushkinskaya 11, Petrozavodsk, Karelia, 185910 Russia
Received July 31, 2003
—The dynamics of yielding capacity of small cranberry (
Pers.) were studied in
three permanent sampling plots in a natural bog in southern Karelia for 28 years (1975–2002). The yield of ber-
ries varied from year to year from 1 to 179 g/m
depending on phytocenotic and, to a greater extent, climatic
factors. The proportion between the number of ripe berries and the number of ﬂowers varied from 10 to 66%.
No distinct periodicity in the abundance of fruiting was revealed.
: small cranberry, dynamics of yielding capacity, southern Karelia.