1063-0740/03/2906- $25.00 © 2003
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 29, No. 6, 2003, pp. 383–389.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2003 by Biologiya Morya, Goryainov, Shatilina.
The effects of the climate on reproduction in
salmons have been studied for a long time; however,
this problem began to generate particular interest in the
middle of the 20th century. Most papers published in
that period dealt with correlations between the survi-
vorship of salmons in early stages of their life cycles
and climate-related factors.
The development of productive and nonproductive
generations of Paciﬁc salmons (pink and chum
salmons) due to variations in global factors was dis-
cussed for the ﬁrst time by Birman . Later on, Bir-
man  developed an idea about the connection
between long-term tendencies in the abundance
dynamics of salmons and global climatic changes. At
present, despite the continuation of studies on the abun-
dance dynamics of salmons in relation to global cli-
matic changes [8–12, 13, 15, 16], our knowledge about
the effects of the climate on the abundance of salmons
is still insufﬁcient. In particular, it is still not entirely
clear how the climate, as a global factor, affects the den-
sity of certain spawning stocks. Without knowing this,
in our opinion, it is not possible to develop successively
or to improve the methodical background for reliable
forecasting of regional catches, especially for such an
important object of ﬁsheries as the pink salmon.
In most papers the index of the Aleutian depression
is used as a major climatic indicator affecting the
dynamics of catches in Asian pink salmon. However,
we believe that it is necessary to use also other climato-
logic centers of atmospheric effects, namely the Asian
(Siberian) Winter Anticyclone, the South-Asian
Depression, and the North Paciﬁc Anticyclone to gain a
more comprehensive understanding of the relationships
between the dynamics of pink salmon and the climate.
This paper discusses the dynamics of catches of
Asian pink salmon in major ﬁshery regions of the Far
East in relation to processes that occurred in the atmo-
sphere above the Asian–Paciﬁc Region of the Northern
Hemisphere in the 20th century.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
As no comprehensive data is available on the abun-
dance dynamics of Asian pink salmon, we had to refer
to catch statistics. It is known that Russian ﬁshery for
Paciﬁc salmons during the 20th century always used a
relatively constant ﬁshery effort (with stationary nets).
Therefore, we believe that the ﬂuctuations in the
catches should reﬂect adequately enough the ﬂuctua-
tions in the abundance of salmons. For this paper we
used statistical data on pink salmon catches from 1907
through 1998 for major ﬁshery regions of the Russian
Far East [5–7, 14]. To analyze the climatic ﬂuctuations
of general atmospheric circulation, we used the data of
classiﬁcations by V.Ya. Vangengeim and A.A. Girs
kindly loaned to us by G.V. Svinukhov (for 1907–1983)
and L.N. Vasilevskaya (for 1984–1997) from the
archives of the Meteorology Department of the Far
Eastern State University. For the paper we used a data-
base of monthly means for the surface atmospheric
pressure measured in the nodes of a regular framework
Dynamics of the Asian Pink Salmon and Climatic Changes
over the Asian–Pacific Region in the Twentieth Century
A. A. Goryainov and T. A. Shatilina
Paciﬁc Fisheries Research Center, Vladivostok, 690950 Russia
Received July 14, 2003
—A signiﬁcant correlation was found between surface pressure and the pink salmon catches obtained
one year later. The correlation coefﬁcients between the catches and the surface pressure were the greatest in
wintertime over the regions of Asia where the climatic center of the Asian Depression is located. This region
promotes monsoon circulation over the Far East and is located in the area of zonal air transfer. In April and May,
during the period of the seaward migration of pink salmon, there was a signiﬁcant correlation between pink
salmon catches and surface pressure over the marine areas where the Paciﬁc and Polar anticyclones are located.
pink salmon, catches, climate.
Materials from the APN/START Global Change Research
Awareness Raising Symposium in Northeast Asia
The results of this study were presented at the International
APN/START Global Change Research Awareness Raising Sym-
posium in Northeast Asia, Vladivostok, October 7–8, 2002.