The dynamics of root growth, proliferation of initial cells of the root cap, rhizodermis, and central metaxylem, as well as structural changes in the cells induced by a 72-h exposure to a high (0.1 mM) concentration of NiSO4 were studied in 3-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. In the roots of control plants, we observed a 12-h rhythm of changes in the length of the cells that completed elongating. Upon the treatment with nickel, this effect was negated, and a considerable reduction in the root length increment was observed in 12 h. In 24 h, root growth essentially ceased. Cell elongation was suppressed acropetally, and the cells, whose elongation was over, became shorter. In the meristem and apical part of the elongation zone, slow cell growth continued during the second and even third days. Autoradiography showed that the earliest effect of nickel on the processes of root morphogenesis observed in 6 h was a suppression of cell transition to DNA synthesis. The cells, where DNA synthesis has already started or which were in other stages of the cycle, continued to pass slowly through the cycle and completed it. Sister cells formed as a result of division subsequently left the cycle in the phase G1 and transited to dormancy. It was found that the main mechanism of cell proliferation cessation was the suppression of cell transition to DNA synthesis. In the cells elongating when exposed to nickel, tissue-specific changes in the nucleus structure were observed (chromatolysis in the rhizodermis and cortex, pycnosis in the endodermis, a disturbance of the nucleus structure in the central metaxylem). These disorders were only observed after cessation of elongation. Root incubation in 0.1 mM nickel solution did not affect the onset of cell differentiation in the xylem and metaphloem and shifted its beginning to the root tip. However, in 24 h the initiation and growth of root hairs were suppressed. It was concluded that tissue-specific nickel-induced changes in the nucleus structure in the elongating cells do not cause the cessation of root growth, although point to nickel toxic effect on the cells in the course of elongation.
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 31, 2008
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