1022-7954/03/3910- $25.00 © 2003
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 39, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1130–1137. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 39, No. 10, 2003, pp. 1338–1346.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2003 by Novoselskaya-Dragovich, Krupnov, Saifulin, Pukhalskiy.
Main traits of wheat cultivars developed in breeding
centers are largely deﬁned by the agroecological condi-
tions in the region and requirements of breeders to the
cultivars they develop.
Based on the hereditary structure of cultivars
inferred from genetic markers, we can trace the forma-
tion of the cultivar genotypes in breeding and monitor
changes in their genetic makeup.
Loci controlling synthesis of grain storage proteins,
gliadins, are among the markers that permits high-pre-
cision identiﬁcation of cultivar genotypes. Gliadins are
alcohol-soluble seed proteins that exhibit high intercul-
tivar polymorphism when studied by standard method
of acid electrophoresis [1–3]. There are six major glia-
din-encoding loci located on short arms of chromo-
somes of homeological groups 1 and 6 [4, 5]. Loci on
chromosomes 1A, 1B, 1D and 6A, 6B, 6D are termed
Gli-A1, Gli-B1, Gli-D1,
. Alleles are designated by Latin letters
[5, 6] or numerals [1, 7].
A vast multiple allelism have been described at each
of these loci. One allele typically encodes several
tightly linked electrophoretic bands inherited as a Men-
delian character. Alleles within a locus differ in the
number and electrophoretic mobility of the encoded
bands [3, 8, 9]. Combination of different alleles of the
six loci provides a great variety of electrophoretic pat-
terns. This extremely high polymorphism permits iden-
tiﬁcation of genotypes of different cultivars.
Gliadin genes as such are not subject to selection,
However, they can be tightly linked with genes control-
ling valuable traits that are introduced into a new culti-
var. Thus, they can be used as effective genetic markers
of such traits as ﬂour baking quality, morphological
characteristics, adaptability, etc. [7, 10–13].
A comparative study of gliadin markers in different
groups of cultivars (e.g., old and new, differing in qual-
ity or in resistance to diseases) may promote under-
standing of breeding strategies and tracing changes in
the genetic structure of cultivars bred in one region dur-
ing some period.
We have examined cultivars of common spring
wheat bred in one of the oldest and most renown breed-
ing centers of Russia, the Research Institute of Agricul-
ture of the Southeast (Saratov).
The Saratov wheat cultivars of the ﬁrst half of the
20th century are known to have originated from the
ancient local Povolzh’e cultivars. Later, their breeding
involved genotypes of cultivars from other regions and
countries, which have changed the initial features of the
Saratov cultivars .
The aim of our study was determining trends in sci-
entiﬁc breeding development on inferred from the gen-
otype dynamics of common wheat cultivars bred during
the 80 years of the existence of scientiﬁc breeding pro-
grams in this region.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples of elite grain of 41 common spring wheat
cultivars provided by the Research Institute of Agricul-
ture of the Southeast, where these cultivars had been
developed. The samples were obtained from the Insti-
tute in different years.
Dynamics of Genetic Variation at Gliadin-Coding Loci
in Saratov Cultivars of Common Wheat
over Eight Decades of Scientific Breeding
A. Yu. Novoselskaya-Dragovich
, V. A. Krupnov
, R. A. Saifulin
, and V. A. Pukhalskiy
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia;
fax: (095) 135 04-60; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Research Institute of Agriculture of the Southeast, Saratov, 410020 Russia
Received June 4, 2003
—Based on analysis of gliadin patterns in common wheat cultivars bred at the Research Institute of
Agriculture of the Southeast, allele composition dynamics in gliadin loci has been surveyed for the period of
over eight decades. It was shown that long-term breeding of the wheat cultivars involved gradual replacement
of alleles characteristic of ancient cultivars for those widely spread in the world, which are probably linked with
alleles that currently confer advantage to their carriers. The process of reduction of interpopulation genetic
diversity in wheat (with special reference to the allele frequency dynamics at gliadin loci) is discussed. This
process is responsible for genetic erosion of the species.