Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) are common where highly dynamic temperate glaciers exist, since seasonal changes in ice-conduit dynamics can start rapid lake drainages. Lakes dammed by cold-based glaciers, however, are less common and GLOFs from these glaciers have been rarely reported. Understanding both the origin and the failure mechanisms of lakes dammed by cold-based glaciers and subsequent flood processes is essential for territorial planning. We study a remarkable GLOF triggered by the failure of a subglacial lake in the Manflas Valley, Arid Andes of Chile, in 1985 providing insights into the lake’s origin, clarifying the failure mechanism and modelling the GLOF event-related dynamics. To identify the factors that contributed to the lake formation and failure, we analysed remotely sensed images, meteorological and topographic data. The GLOF dynamics were reconstructed using empirical (LAHARZ and MSF) and physical models (RAMMS). The obtained results were compared with field data of flow extent, depth and velocity. We show that the failed lake (4 × 106 m3) formed in a low-slope (≤ 10°) area and that extreme (≥ 90th percentile) annual precipitation before the GLOF contributed to the lake filling and probably to the dam collapse. The lake likely drained rapidly after mechanical failure of the ice-dam producing a high energy sediment-laden flow. We show the challenges of modelling large flows over long distances (dozens of kilometres) especially when flows change between Newtonian and Non-Newtonian phases. A GLOF can still endanger the Manflas Valley since a remnant of the lake of about 220.000 m3 exists and economic assets are located along the1985 GLOF path.
Natural Hazards – Springer Journals
Published: May 31, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera