DURABLE STRUCTURES FOR THE LINING
OF ELECTRIC-ARC FURNACES USED TO MAKE FERRONICKEL
AND GRANULAR MATTES
V. V. Slovikovskii
and A. V. Gulyaeva
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 3, pp. 103 – 106, March, 2016.
Original article submitted November 5, 2015.
Results are presented from a study of the service conditions of the lining of electric-arc furnaces and the char
acter of fracture of their lining. New compositions of refractory mortars and mixes were developed along with
new lining systems. Extensive factory tests were conducted of new systems that employ high-quality refrac
tory mortars and protective refractory mixes in the lining of the furnace roof. Implementation of the measures
that were proposed have made it possible to increase the durability of the lining by a factor in the range
1.4 – 1.6.
Keywords: electric-arc furnace, roof lining, Rezhsk Nickel Plant (RNZ), lining system, wear of refractories,
The most important goal of Russian metallurgy at pres-
ent is increasing the volume of production and quality of
metal, especially by increasing the output of alloy steels and
other special grades of steel. Thus, expanding the production
of ferroalloys, including ferronickel, is also a high priority.
The use of secondary raw materials is important both to
make additional resources available and to lower operating
and capital costs while increasing productivity. Secondary
nonferrous metallurgy is an energy-, labor-, and capital-sav
ing sector of industry, and processing secondary raw materi
als by electric-arc refining is the most progressive and pro
ductive method of maximizing the recovery of metals for use
in obtaining new metal at relatively low cost.
This investigation concerns the reliability of the lining of
electric furnaces at the Rezhsk Nickel Plant (RNZ), improv
ing the durability of the lining of the furnace roof, and reduc
ing the consumption of scarce roof refractories. The process
of obtaining ferronickel and granular mattes (a semifinished
product) in the DSP-3 and DSP-6 furnaces at the RNZ with
the use of nickel-bearing wastes and battery scrap in the heat
is closest to electric steelmaking and ferroalloys production
in terms of its technological parameters. Thus, the experi
ences gained in international metallurgy should be consid
ered in order to improve electric-arc refining in general and
examine aspects of improving the durability of the lining of
electric-arc furnaces — especially the lining of the roof.
The following foreign trends can be discerned in regard
to improving the design of the roof lining in electric-arc fur-
naces and increasing their service life: the installation of
thrust-suspension roofs, the installation of water-cooled
structures inside the lining, and the use of combination lin
ings made of refractory products and mixes [3, 4]. However,
the use of thrust-suspension roofs has recently declined in
Russia and abroad due to their high cost and the complexity
of building them.
In the investigation being discussed here, a study was
made of two 6-ton electric-arc furnaces and one 3-ton elec
tric-arc furnace at the RNZ. The furnaces are equipped with
4.0-MW transformers and were designed to make ferronickel
and granular mattes (an Ni-bearing semifinished product).
The lining of the wall of the furnaces was made of chro
mite-magnesite products from the Zaporozhe and Pantelei
monovsky refractory plants. The wall lining was made with
two types of refractories — KhM-1 and KhM-3. The roof
lining is of the sectoral-arch design (Fig. 1) and is composed
of four grades of periclase roof refractories (PKhS-1,
PKhS-10, PKhS-35, and PKhS-42) made by the “Magnezit”
combine. The refractories were installed dry. The average
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 57, No. 2, July, 2016
1083-4877/16/05702-0117 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg, Russia.