1063-0740/05/3104- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Marine Biology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2005, pp. 232–237.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Biologiya Morya, Markina, Aizdaicher.
Synthetic surface-active agents (synthetic surfac-
tants), or detergents, are used in many industries and in
home life. The main hazard of detergent pollution is in
their effect on water ecosystems as a whole. First of all,
that is caused by the impact of surfactants on the
microalgae, which, as a rule, being at the ﬁrst trophic
level, are the basic suppliers of oxygen in the water
basin. The given pollutants favor a reduction or
increase in primary production and result in infringe-
ment of the community structure .
Detailed studies of the effect of surfactants on
organisms are necessary as the input of detergents into
marine ecosystems continuously increases [33, 34, 39]
and their MCLs (maximum concentration limits) are
quite often exceeded. Nakhodka (52 MCL), Wrangel
(21 MCL), and Koz’mino bays (18.7 MCL) may be
attributed to such areas in the Sea of Japan . The
surfactant effect has been studied in a wide spectrum of
organisms, from bacteria up to warm-blooded animals,
including unicellular algae [19, 22].
In the overwhelming majority of instances, the effect
of detergents has been studied on fresh-water microalgae
[11, 13, 20, 21, 23, 24]. The experimental works analyz-
ing the effect of detergent on microalgae have mostly
been related to the effect of syndets on the number of
cells and their functional activity [2, 4, 22, 30].
Beyond the surface-active agent, detergents contain
various additives strengthening their washing quality.
Thus, phosphates are an obligatory component of sur-
factants that, as is known, favor the growth of a number
of microalgae [18, 27, 29]. The works investigating the
detergent effect without strengthening additives are
very few [11, 14, 23].
The effect of synthetic surfactants on marine
microalgae has practically not been investigated
[28, 35, 37]. The objective of our work was study of the
effect of a model surfactant, sodium dodecylsulfate
(SDS), on the growth of the marine microalga
. The task of the work was to study the
following parameters: the age of matrix cultures, the
number of cells, the time of toxicant administration in
the culture medium, and determination of the produc-
tion of oxygen in the presence of the toxicant.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
The object of study was the unicellular green alga
Teod. (Chlorophyta). The length of
cells was 5–29
m, and the width was 3.8–20.3
The cells were solitary, ovoid or pear-shaped in form.
The considered microalga is a widespread, easily culti-
vated species living in seas and salty lakes .
The culture of microalga was reared on Goldberg’s
nutrient medium  prepared on ﬁltered and pasteur-
ized seawater of 32‰ salinity. The salinity was deter-
mined with a GM-65 salimeter. Illumination by lumi-
nescent lamps was 3000–3500 lx at the surface of ﬂasks
with a 12 : 12 h light–dark period. The alga was cul-
tured at the temperature 20
C. The culture condi-
tions have already been elaborated by one of the
authors . The tests were carried out in conic Erlenm-
eyer ﬂasks with a volume of the culture medium of
100 ml. The cultures were stirred 1–2 times a day. Sam-
ples for cell counting were taken at the same time, after
careful hashing, 1–2 h after termination of the dark
(Chlorophyta) as a Test-Object
for Assessment of Detergent Pollution of a Marine Environment
Zh. V. Markina and N. A. Aizdaicher
Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Division of Russian Academy of Sciences,
Vladivostok, 690041 Russia
Received June 30, 2004
—The dynamics of the number of the microalga
depending on the age of the matrix
culture, the number of cells, and the time of toxicant administration in the culture medium and on oxygen pro-
duction as a parameter of the functional condition of the dunaliella, was studied in solutions of sodium dode-
cylsulfate (SDS) containing 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/l of the detergent. The parameters at which the application of the
considered test-object allowed determination of the most exact information on the environment quality and tox-
icity of substances were determined. It was shown that the SDS in concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mg/l did not affect
signiﬁcantly the growth of the microalga, and an inhibiting effect was recorded at a toxicant content of 10 mg/l.
, detergents, sodium dodecylsulphate, oxygen production.