Disorders of top–down cognitive control in students with learning difficulties

Disorders of top–down cognitive control in students with learning difficulties The model of fixed set (for Uznadze’s paradigm) was used to estimate the functional activity of the cortico-thalamic system of selective attention and cortico-hyppocampal system of emotional and volitional activity in second-year medical students with learning difficulties (n = 20). The control group (n = 30) consisted of successfully studying students of the same year. We observed a significant reduction of induced reactions of neocortical EEG α oscillations in response to the facial stimuli or conditioning Go/NoGo signals in underperforming students. This indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the corticothalamic system of selective attention, i.e., weakening of the top–down cognitive control. This disorder is the psychophysiological basis of cognitive difficulties in the learning process. The amplitude of θ-range cortical potentials in underperforming students is significantly higher than that in the control group, i.e., the level of functional activity of the cortico-hippocampal system is higher, which indicates a higher level of stress. These findings make it possible to conclude that psychophysiological laboratory studies should be used as a supporting tool for high school teachers and psychologists during their work with students with learning difficulties. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Human Physiology Springer Journals

Disorders of top–down cognitive control in students with learning difficulties

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Publisher
Pleiades Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Subject
Life Sciences; Life Sciences, general; Human Physiology; Biomedicine, general
ISSN
0362-1197
eISSN
1608-3164
D.O.I.
10.1134/S0362119717040065
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The model of fixed set (for Uznadze’s paradigm) was used to estimate the functional activity of the cortico-thalamic system of selective attention and cortico-hyppocampal system of emotional and volitional activity in second-year medical students with learning difficulties (n = 20). The control group (n = 30) consisted of successfully studying students of the same year. We observed a significant reduction of induced reactions of neocortical EEG α oscillations in response to the facial stimuli or conditioning Go/NoGo signals in underperforming students. This indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the corticothalamic system of selective attention, i.e., weakening of the top–down cognitive control. This disorder is the psychophysiological basis of cognitive difficulties in the learning process. The amplitude of θ-range cortical potentials in underperforming students is significantly higher than that in the control group, i.e., the level of functional activity of the cortico-hippocampal system is higher, which indicates a higher level of stress. These findings make it possible to conclude that psychophysiological laboratory studies should be used as a supporting tool for high school teachers and psychologists during their work with students with learning difficulties.

Journal

Human PhysiologySpringer Journals

Published: Aug 1, 2017

References

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