The discovery of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface 1 has resulted in the observation of many properties 2–5 not present in conventional semiconductor heterostructures, and so become a focal point for device applications 6–8 . Its counterpart, the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG), is expected to complement the 2DEG. However, although the 2DEG has been widely observed 9 , the 2DHG has proved elusive. Herein we demonstrate a highly mobile 2DHG in epitaxially grown SrTiO3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Using electrical transport measurements and in-line electron holography, we provide direct evidence of a 2DHG that coexists with a 2DEG at complementary heterointerfaces in the same structure. First-principles calculations, coherent Bragg rod analysis and depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy consistently support our finding that to eliminate ionic point defects is key to realizing a 2DHG. The coexistence of a 2DEG and a 2DHG in a single oxide heterostructure provides a platform for the exciting physics of confined electron–hole systems and for developing applications.
Nature Materials – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 5, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud