A quartzolite from the Rova occurrence, Keivy alkali granite province, Kola Peninsula, Russia, is used to examine the differing responses of certain rare-metal minerals during interaction with hydrothermal fluids. The minerals are two silicates [chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon], a phosphate [monazite-(Ce)] and an oxide [fergusonite-(Y)]. Textural evidence is taken to show that the dominant alteration mechanism was interface-coupled dissolution-reprecipitation. Zircon was the most pervasively altered, possibly by broadening of cleavage planes or fractures; the other minerals were altered mainly on their rims and along cracks. The importance of cracks in promoting fluid access is stressed. The compositional effects of the alteration of each phase are documented. The hydrothermal fluids carried few ligands capable of transporting significant amounts of rare-earth elements (REE), high field strength elements (HFSE) and actinides; alteration is inferred to have been promoted by mildly alkaline, Ca-bearing fluids. Expansion cracks emanating from fergusonite-(Y) are filled with unidentified material containing up to 35 wt% UO2 and 25 wt% REE2O3, indicating late-stage, short-distance mobility of these elements. Electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite yielded an age of 1665 ± 22 Ma, much younger than the formation age of the Keivy province (2.65–2.67 Ga) but comparable to that of the Svecofennian metamorphic event which affected the area (1.9–1.7 Ga) or during fluid-thermal activation of the region during rapakivi granite magmatism (1.66–1.56 Ga). Dates for altered monazite range from 2592 ± 244 Ma to 773 ± 88 Ma and reflect disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system during alteration.
Mineralogy and Petrology – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 27, 2017
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