ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 7, pp. 707–716. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2013.
Original Russian Text © N.Yu. Oparina, A.V. Snezhkina, A.F. Sadritdinova, V.A. Veselovskii, A.A. Dmitriev, V.N. Senchenko, N.V. Mel’nikova, A.S. Speranskaya, M.V. Darii,
O.A. Stepanov, I.M. Barkhatov, A.V. Kudryavtseva, 2013, published in Genetika, 2013, Vol. 49, No. 7, pp. 814–823.
Housekeeping genes are a necessary component of
the genome of all cells in multicellular organism. Their
expression frequently does not depend on tissue differ
entiation, since the products they encoded are required
for normal cell vital functions. Glycolysis (enzymatic
process of glucose splitting in cells, accompanied by
ATP synthesis) refers to one of the most ancient and
conservative metabolism processes. High conservatism
and evolutionary antiquity of the process allow us to
consider genes that encode enzymes involved in glycol
ysis to be the most probable housekeeping genes.
Indeed, the gene encoding glyceraldehyde3phos
phatedehydrogenase enzyme (GAPDH) is one of the
most frequently used control genes in the studies of
expression at the mRNA level [1–3].
At the same time, according to different literature
data, other genes with proteins involved in the main
stages of glycolysis are differentially expressed; the
level of mRNA differs in a number of tissues in health
and disease [4–8].
The authors contributed equally to this work.
Transcriptome changes in carcinogenesis are
widely studied; a considerable amount of experimen
tal data (available for the analysis on different data
bases) has been accumulated. However, the majority
of the obtained data require confirmation by means of
a highly accurate method of quantitative realtime
PCR. As a result of the bioinformatic analysis of tran
scriptome databases, we selected genes, the protein
products of which are involved in humans, such as
hexokinase 1 (HK1), phosphoglucoisomerase G6P
(GPI), phosphofructokinase (PFKP), aldolase A
(ALDOA), alphaenolase 1 (ENO1), and glyceralde
hyde–phosphate–dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (Fig. 1).
We estimated the stability of expression of genes that
encode main glycolytic enzymes in several types of
malignant neoplasms with different localizations.
Using the PCRPB method, we quantitatively esti
mated the level of mRNA in genes for which the pos
sibility of the violation in the stability of expression in
samples of kidney papillary cancer, as well as planocel
lular lung cancer, has been demonstrated. The data
obtained demonstrate violations in one of the basic
metabolic pathways in kidney and lung cancer, as well
as allow us to suggest a number of genes as control
Differential Expression of Genes That Encode Glycolysis Enzymes
in Kidney and Lung Cancer in Humans
N. Yu. Oparina
, A. V. Snezhkina
, A. F. Sadritdinova
, V. A. Veselovskii
, A. A. Dmitriev
V. N. Senchenko
, N. V. Mel’nikova
, A. S. Speranskaya
, M. V. Darii
, O. A. Stepanov
I. M. Barkhatov
, and A. V. Kudryavtseva
Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991 Russia
email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Department of Higher Plants, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119991 Russia
Department of Molecular Biophysics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University),
Moscow oblast, Dolgoprudnyi, 141700 Russia
Gorbacheva Institute of Children Hematology and Transplantology, St. Petersburg, 197089 Russia
Received August 1, 2012
—Glycolysis is a main catabolic pathway of glucose metabolism, accompanied by ATP synthesis.
More than 30 enzymes are involved in glycolysis, and genes that encode them can be considered housekeep
ing genes due to the high conservatism and evolutionary antiquity of the process. We studied the expression
of these genes in kidney papillary cancer and planocellular lung cancer via the bioinformatic analysis of tran
scriptome database and method of quantitative real time PCR. Quantitative analysis of mRNA level demon
strated that only a part of genes that encode glycolysis enzymes maintain relatively stable mRNA level,
genes in kidney papillary cancer and the
genes in planocellular lung cancer. The frequent increase
in the mRNA expression of
genes in kidney cancer, as well as the
lung cancer, were detected for the first time by real time PCR. For other genes, their differential expression
was demonstrated; the cases of both a decrease and increase in the mRNA level were detected. Thus, several
genes that can be used as control genes in transcriptome analysis by real time PCR in kidney and lung cancer,
as well as a number of differentially expressed genes that can be potential oncomarkers, were identified.