Detection of antibodies to nonstructural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is the preferred diagnostic method to differentiate infected from vaccinated animals. In India, an endemic region practising preventive biannual vaccination, 3AB3 indirect ELISA (r3AB3 I-ELISA) has been employed as the primary screening test for serosurveillance. However, because of the variability observed in the immune response to the NSPs, the likelihood of detecting or confirming an infected animal is increased if an antibody profile against multiple NSPs is considered for diagnosis. In this study, all three copies of NSP 3B were expressed in a prokaryotic system to develop an indirect ELISA (r3B I-ELISA). At the decided cutoff of 40 percent positivity, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the r3B I-ELISA were estimated to be 92.1 % (95 % CI: 89.0–94.5) and 98.1 % (95 % CI: 96.9–98.8), respectively, as compared to 97.04 % and 95.04 % for r3AB3 I-ELISA. Although r3B I-ELISA displayed lower sensitivity compared to the screening assay, which could possibly be attributed to additional relevant B-cell epitopes in the carboxy-terminal half of the 3A protein, the former achieved considerably higher specificity on repeatedly vaccinated animals. NSP antibodies could be detected from 10 to as late as 998 days postinfection in experimental calves. Substantial agreement in the test results (90.6 %) was found between the two ELISAs. The r3B I-ELISA, when used in conjunction with the r3AB3 I-ELISA as an integrated system, can potentially augment the efficiency and confidence of detection of infected herds against the backdrop of intensive vaccination.
Archives of Virology – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 1, 2014
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