DEVICES THAT PREVENT ADHESION OF MATERAL
TO THE SURFACE OF LOAD-BEARING CAPACITORS
S. Ya. Davydov,
I. D. Kashcheev,
S. N. Sychev,
and A. R. Khurmatullin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 86 – 88, April, 2010.
Original article submitted December 29, 2009.
A description of the construction of magnetic-pulse devices and their operation in preventing adhesion of ma
terials to the working surfaces of metallic lattices, the shields of hopper units, and the mounts of bag filters is
presented. A highly efficient means of combating adhesion of materials to the working surfaces is proposed.
Keywords: adhesion of material, load-bearing capacitor, hopper wall, anti-adhesion plate, vibrator,
The outlet ports of hoppers often become clogged at
business plants due to caking of pieces of material as a result
of the pressure exerted by the upper layers on the ports. In
winter, congealation of material occurs at negative tempera-
tures simultaneously with the process of caking. As a result,
the hoppers function with permanently caked sections of ma-
terial, which may occupy up to 60% of the volume of the
hopper. Complete cessation of inflow of material often oc-
curs, as a consequence of which the production cycle is dis-
rupted, the projected volume of output is not produced, and
labor costs increase significantly. For example, in unfavor
able operating periods there may be as many as 25 workers
involved in servicing a single hopper. The mechanical, vibra
tory, and pneumatic agitators, gas-pulse devices, and even
heating which are used to prevent overhang of materials on
metallic lattices, the shields of hopper units, and the mounts
of bag filters at enterprises in the refractory materials indus
try prove to be ineffective or difficult to implement.
For example, a gas-pulse cleaning system (Fig. 1) pro
duces a burst of an air-gas mixture which in turn generates a
shock wave that can cause the roof to collapse. Depending on
the force and number of pulse chambers, 50 – 800 m
/h of air
and 3.5 – 80 m
/h of gas
may be consumed. The plant has
been installed at OAL GMK Noril(sk Nikel(for the purpose
of cleaning the heat surfaces of waste-heat boilers and the
hoppers of electrical filters.
Magnetic pulse devices [1 – 3] containing electromag
nets that are periodically connected to a bank of capacitors
charged through a power unit from a network prove to be
more effective. Once the network of electromagnetic coils
are connected, the energy accumulated in the capacitor bank
is instantaneously transformed into the energy of a tool, thus
there occurs a sudden impact, which creates a mechanical
“shock wave.” As a result, the material is dislodged from the
walls of the capacitors (Fig. 2). An electromagnetic exciter
functions reliably, though a dynamic induction exciter is
more promising, since it possesses a higher efficiency and
better weight and dimension indicators, and can be used to
develop significantly greater forces.
The electromagnets of a dynamic induction exciter
(Fig. 3) is mounted on the walls of the hopper and are period
ically connected to a bank of capacitors charged through a
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 51, No. 2, 2010
1083-4877/10/5102-0076 © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
GOUVPO UGTU-UPI, Ekaterinburg, Russia.
Here and below, volumes of gas are given assuming normal con
Fig. 1. Gas-pulse cleaning: 1) mixing ejector; 2) ignition unit; 3)
spark plug; 4 )control panel; 5) shut-off valve; 6) pulse chamber; 7)
cleaning subject; pressure of air and of gas P
are indicated at
positive pressure; 1 atm = 10