The present study takes a broad and nuanced view of gender typicality in normative populations and suggests that this aspect of children’s gender identity might be a fundamental aspect of vulnerability to peer maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional sample from the Southwestern United States, developmental differences were examined in the relations between kindergarten (n = 210, M age = 5.81, 52 % female), second (n = 205, M age = 7.62, 50 % female), and fourth (n = 205, M age = 9.56, 44 % female) grade students’ self-reported similarity to own- and other-gender peers and teacher-reported peer victimization and exclusion. Parents’ reports of children’s own- and other-gender friendships were also examined to test whether friendships would attenuate this relation. We hypothesized (a) lower gender typicality would be associated with higher victimization/exclusion for 2nd and 4th grade children and (b) friendships with own- and other-gender peers, but especially own-gender peers, would moderate the typicality and victimization/exclusion relation, acting as a buffer against victimization/exclusion. Supporting our hypotheses, results indicated developmental differences in the link between gender typicality and victimization/exclusion with a more consistent relation in 2nd and 4th grades. For girls, having other-gender friends moderated the negative relation of other-gender similarity and victimization/exclusion. Own-gender friendships were protective overall for both genders, and other-gender friendships were protective for 4th graders. Our study suggests that gender-related intolerance is a central issue to peer maltreatment and affects more than just those who exhibit the most extreme cases of gender nonconformity and that friendships can provide a buffer against victimization/exclusion.
Sex Roles – Springer Journals
Published: Mar 22, 2016
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera