Physical Oceanography, Vol.
5, January, 2011 (Ukrainian Original No.
5, September–October, 2010)
DEVELOPMENT OF THE SUMMER BREEZE CIRCULATION
IN THE WEST PART OF THE BLACK SEA
V. V. E f i m o v
and V. S. Barabanov
On the basis of the results of regional reanalysis of the atmospheric circulation presented with a resolu-
km, the process of formation of breezes is studied for the case of weak synoptic background
activity in the rectilinear part of the west coast of the Black Sea for the period
01–04.07.2007. It is
shown that the gravitational currents, breeze fronts, and intense internal waves are formed under these
conditions in the troposphere during the daytime. The Hovmöller diagrams of the wind velocity and the
maps of the vertical sections of potential temperature, vertical velocity of the air masses, and other pa-
rameters are presented. On the basis of these diagrams and maps, we obtain quantitative estimates of the
wind velocity in the breeze and of the velocity of propagation of the breeze front and compare these es-
timates with the available literature data.
The breeze circulation is caused by the nonuniform warming of air in the land–sea conjugation zone in a di-
urnal cycle. In the daytime, the short-wave solar radiation heats the land to a greater extent than the sea and,
hence, creates a horizontal gradient of the surface temperature of the land and the surface layer of the atmos-
phere. Hence, we also observe the formation of a horizontal pressure gradient. As a result, a convective bound-
ary layer is formed over the land in the daytime and the level of pressure decreases, which leads to the inflow of
a cold steadily stratified air from the sea into the dry land. This air flow in the lower part of the boundary layer
forms a gravitational current. The front of the current and the region of intense convective cloudiness move to-
ward the land and form the so-called sea breeze. In the upper part of the boundary layer, we observe the forma-
tion of a compensating less pronounced reverse current, which closes the breeze circulation cell. At night, the
land breeze of the opposite direction (blowing from the land into the sea) is formed.
This concept of formation of a simple breeze circulation is fairly well described in [1–5]. In addition, num-
erous fine effects of the development of breeze circulation are investigated. These effects include, in particular,
the formation of the front of sea breeze and the accompanying effects of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability on the
boundary of the direct and reverse circulations, etc.. Thus, the basic transient processes of evolution of the sea
breeze in the boundary layer of the atmosphere are studied with regard for the formation of convective cloudi-
ness in the recent work  on the basis of a numerical model with high space resolution (~100 m in the hori-
At the same time, breeze circulation is developed under the action of many other natural factors, such as the
background synoptic variations, stratification of the boundary layer, surface topography, shape of the coastline,
turbulent forces, forces of surface friction, cloudiness, etc. [7–11]. The effects of these and other factors signifi-
Marine Hydrophysical Institute, Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences, Sevastopol, Ukraine.
Corresponding author; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Translated from Morskoi Gidrofizicheskii Zhurnal, No.
21–32, September–October, 2010. Original article submitted May 29, 2009;
revision submitted July 15, 2009.
0928–5105/11/2005–0335 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 335