Qual Quant (2015) 49:1997–2014
Development of the spatial ability self-report scale
(SASRS): reliability and validity studies
Published online: 2 August 2014
© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014
Abstract In this study, a self-report measure of spatial ability, the Spatial Ability Self-Report
Scale (SASRS), was developed to evaluate undergraduates’ spatial abilities. A total of 362
undergraduates from a government university in central Turkey participated. Exploratory
factor analysis with promax oblique rotation revealed three factors: Object Manipulation
Spatial Ability (OMSA), Spatial Navigational Ability (SNA), and Visual Memory (VM).
Conﬁrmatory factor analysis conﬁrmed that these factors constituted a model-with good ﬁt.
A concurrent validity study using the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) demonstrated signiﬁcant
correlations between OMSA and the overall scale. However, the correlations between MRT
and SNA and MRT and VM were not signiﬁcant. The item analysis, internal consistency
and test–retest reliability ﬁndings suggested that the eighteen items on the SASRS have a
three-factor structure and that the scale is valid and reliable.
Keywords Object manipulation · Spatial ability · Scale development ·
Imagine that you are travelling in a vehicle from one point to another. As the vehicle travels, in
fact, it traces a curve on the earth’s surface. Can you visualize the image of this curve in your
mind? Can you visualize your movement and position from a different perspective? This skill
is known as visualization ability, or more speciﬁcally spatial ability. This ability is deﬁned
as a combination of skills, such as moving objects mentally, integrating and disintegrating
the objects in the mind or visualizing the objects from a different perspective (Hegarty and
Waller 2004; Linn and Petersen 1985; McGee 1979; Olkun 2003; Turgut 2007).
Speciﬁc skills such as positional awareness, the ability to visualize objects in the mind
and pattern perception enable those living in a three-dimensional world to comprehend and
M. Turgut (
Faculty of Education, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir, Turkey