Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 12, pp. 2152−2154.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © K.S. Khitrin, D.S. Meteleva, S.L. Fuks, S.V. Khitrin, Yu.R. Nisanbaeva, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84,
No. 12, pp. 2068−2070.
Development of the Method for Determination of the Content
of Softwood Component in Lignins
K. S. Khitrin, D. S. Meteleva, S. L. Fuks, S. V. Khitrin, and Yu. R. Nisanbaeva
Vyatka State University, Kirov, Russia
Received March 18, 2011
Abstract—Methods for the quantitative treatment of IR Fourier spectra for the determination of relative contents
of pine and birch lignin in wood were studied.
Lignin (LG), which is the second organic polymer in
abundance in the Earth after cellulose, unlike this latter,
it is practically not used. Pulp-and-paper and hydrolyz-
ing factories drop in ponds and refuse dumps millions
of tons of lignin waste harmful to the environment. Two
trajectories of LG utilization were outlined: the use as
a carbon-containing raw material for producing sorbents
[1 –3] and the chemical treatment enabling the optimal use
of aromatic structures available in LG [4, 5]. However the
evolution of these paths is hampered for some reasons.
Production of modiﬁ ed materials based on lignin raw
material with increased efﬁ ciency of using in various
branches of a national economy is impossible without
development of new approaches to their studying. Among
methods, which were used to study LG and its transmuta-
tions, spectral methods occupy a leading position.
The most abundant hydrolytic lignins (HLG), which
are not used in the industry, are characterized by incon-
stant compositions that are mainly deﬁ ned by a type of
initial wood, conditions of its growing, transporting,
storage, and a method and a regimen of woodworking.
The aim of this work was the study of possibilities of
application of IR Fourier spectroscopy for the determi-
nation of the nature of initial HLG raw material and its
The fullest assignment of absorption bands of the most
studied spectrum of dioxanelignin of aspens (Bjorkman’s)
containing characteristic quaiacyl (I) and quaiacylsyrin-
gyl (II) elements , and sometimes also hydroxyphen-
ylpropane (III) , is given in :
Here R = H, R' = OCH
(I); R = R' = OCH
(II); R =
R' = H (III).
It is seen from the spectra of lignins obtained from
a pine and a birch that the band at 2850 cm
ric stretching vibrations of CH bonds in methyl groups,
which is approximately equal to all lignins, can be used
for comparison of LGs as an internal standard.
Four characteristic bands at 1600, 1510, 1410, and
refer  to the skeletal vibrations of the aro-
matic ring. Preliminary experiments have shown that the
band at 1600 cm
in the spectra of LG of softwood and
of quaiacyl-type models is much less intensive than the
band at 1510 cm
. Furthermore, the intensity of the band
at 1460 cm
for hardwood is higher than that of the band
. It has deﬁ ned the selection of the speciﬁ ed
bands for the quantitative treatment of the spectra.
The bands at 1270 and 1230 cm
in quaiacyl com-
pounds and at 1335 and 1235 cm
in syringyl derivatives
are caused by stretching vibrations of aromatic rings and
C–O bonds, the bands at 1130–1030 cm
are assigned to