DEVELOPMENT OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS
PREPARED BY SHS TECHNOLOGY
A. A. Zharmenov,
B. N. Satbaev,
S. Sh. Kazhikenova,
and O. A. Nurkenov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 8, pp. 40 – 48, August 2011.
Original article submitted May 7, 2011.
Scientific bases of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of refractory materials, recipes, and methods
for their creation from local raw material are developed. Thermochemical and kinetic parameters for
solid-phase synthesis of systems based on chamotte, chromite, magnesium, and aluminum sulphate, and also
phase composition, thermodynamic and physicomechanical properties of the products obtained are deter-
Keywords: self-propagating high-temperature synthesis, refractoriness, highly effective refractory materials,
refractory mix, magnesia, chromite-periclase, forsterite, dolomite, and dinas refractories.
Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) is
one of the promising resource saving and highly productive
methods for preparing refractory inorganic compounds, hard,
alloys, and refractory materials. SHS is used for preparation
of refractory inorganic sheets, objects, coatings with use of
mixtures of metal oxides with metal reducing agents and
nonmetals as raw materials. This method has been used to
prepare a broad range of cast carbides and other hard alloys
based on them, a number of borides, and also some silicides
and intermetallics. All of these materials have been prepared
mainly from chemically pure reagents, whose use increases
the cost of synthesized materials. In view of this there is a re-
quirement for carrying out research aimed at use in this pro-
cess of available raw materials.
This work has been carried out in the Institute of Physi-
cal Chemistry, Russian Academy of sciences (Chrnogolovka,
Moscow region, Russia) under the leadership of A. G. Mer-
zhanov, M. D. Nersesyan, and I. V. Borovinska, Results of
studying the SHS mechanism for refractories has been aired
in the work of V. I. Yukhvid, E. A. Levashov, and V. N. Shki-
ro, and others. In Kazakhstan since 1984 in the Chemical Ki-
netics and Combustion faculty of the S. M. Kirov KazGU
under the leadership of G. I. Ksandopulo and M. B. Ismailov
the mechanism of combustion of sodium-thermal systems
has been studied leading later to work for an SHS-refractory.
However, until recently there has not been a systematic study
and practical analysis of creation of highly effective refrac-
tory materials for metallurgical units by the SHS method.
Studies, carried in RGP National Center for Complex
Processing of Mineral Raw Material of the Kazakhstan Re-
public (RK), and also tests performed in OAO Korporatsiya
Kazakhmys, OAO, Kaztsink, OAO Mittal Stil Temirtau, AO
TsentralAziyaTsement, AO Transnational Company Kaz-
khrom, i.e. Aksysk Ferroalloy Plant, TOO Ferrum-Vtor,
OOO Staro-Oskol Metallurgical Combine (Staryi Oskol,
Russia), and other companies, have made it possible for the
first time to develop a theoretical basis for self-propagating
high-temperature synthesis of refractory materials and tech-
nology for their manufacture from local raw materials, and
also to demonstrate the efficiency of their use in metallurgy.
Over a number of years more than 35 new forms of re-
fractory materials have been developed (magnesia, chro-
mite-periclase, forsterite, dolomite, dinas) [1 – 3], and they
have been tested industrially and introduced into ferrous and
nonferrous metallurgy enterprises of the Kazakhstan Republic.
Examples are provided in Tables 1 – 4 of some magnesia
SHS refractories used for lining heating units of nonferrous
and ferrous metallurgy. Use of compositions provided in Ta
ble 1 makes it possible to increase the refractoriness and im
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 4, November, 2011
1083-4877/11/05204-0294 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
RGP National Center for Combined Processing of Mineral Raw
Material of the Kazakhstan Republic (NTs KPMS RK), Almaty,
Branch of NTs KPMS RK, Astana, Kazakhstan Republic.
E. A. Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda, Kazakh
Karaganda IOSU, Karaganda, Kazakhstan Republic.