Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 10, pp. 1772−1777.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © N.K. Luneva, L.I. Petrovskaya, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 10, pp. 1680−1685.
ORGANIC SYNTHESIS AND INDUSTRIAL
Development of New Water-Treatment-Resistant
Fire- and Bioprotective Preparations for Wood
N. K. Luneva and L. I. Petrovskaya
Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Belarus
Received September 13, 2010
Abstract—Fire-retardant formulations for wood were developed, and the efﬁ ciency of their ﬁ reprooﬁ ng properties,
resistance to water, thermal decomposition, and effect of additives on these properties were studied.
Wood is a convenient, strong, and ecologically
clean material, which is still widely used until recently
in construction of industrial and apartment building.
A severe disadvantage of wood structures is their
ﬂ ammability risk, especially for constructions not
subjected to a protective treatment. The number of
natural disasters, including ﬁ res, is steadily increasing
all over the world. In housing, wood ﬁ res constitute
more than 90% of the total number of ﬁ res.
In the last decade, signiﬁ cant advances have been
made in development of ﬁ reprooﬁ ng formulations
that can improve the ﬁ re resistance of load-carrying
wood structures and restrict ﬂ ame propagation in
ﬁ res. However, all the known ﬁ re retardants are, as
a rule, not devoid of disadvantages: some of these are
insufﬁ ciently efﬁ cient and, therefore, require substantial
expenditure for application and are expensive; others
are limited in use (treatment of only interior surfaces
of buildings, low resistance to rains and temperature
gradients). The number of preparations that are used
in CIS countries and yield, when applied to the surface
of wood, difﬁ cultly combustible materials resistant to
water treatments is rather limited (not more than 10–15).
Therefore, the need in new efﬁ cient preparations that
provide multifunctional protective properties and are
convenient in use and practicable is still acute.
The goal of our study was to develop new formulations
for wood surface treatment that would provide, together
with highly efﬁ cient ﬁ reprooﬁ ng, also water resistance.
A tendency that begins to show in the development
of means of wood ﬁ reprooﬁ ng is that ﬁ re retardants
contain both organic and inorganic compounds
and combine compounds of both kinds in a single
preparation. It can be assumed that use of compounds of
different kinds will make it possible, on the one hand, to
transfer wood to the group of difﬁ cult combustible and,
on the other hand, to obtain a ﬁ re retardant with lowered
leachability. Previously, a ﬁ re-retardant composition
has been suggested, which contains polyphosphoric
acid compounds, organic amides and polyols, and an
aqueous-organic dispersion. It was found in a study of
properties of this ﬁ re retardant that use of a FINNDISP
HW vinyl acetate dispersion (particle size 2–3 μm)
manufactured by OY Forcit AB (Finland) improves
the stability of ﬁ reproofed wood in water [1, 2].
Therefore, this aqueous-organic dispersion was used in
all the formulations as a binder. The following additives
were introduced into the base phosphorus-nitrogen
combustion inhibitor, formulation B produced from
a polyphosphate, amide, and polyol: talc and vermiculite
with particle sizes of 2–5 and 10–15 μm, respectively;
aerosol A, 4 Zh TP pigment (Pigment Open Joint-
Stock Company) as dye, and a surfactant (boiled oil)
as emulsiﬁ er with dispersities of 0.1, 1–2, and 2–5 μm,
respectively. The constituent ingredients of the ﬁ re
retardants were thoroughly ground and then mixed with