150 YEARS JSC “BOROVICHSKII REFRACTORY WORKS”
DEVELOPMENT OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT
V. P. Migal’
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 6, pp. 9 – 25, June, 2007.
The acute competition on the world market of ferrous
metals calls for taking measures designed to raise the com
petitiveness of the domestic metallurgical sector. Domestic
refractories do not fully meet the constantly increasing ser
vice requirements of the metallurgical sector. Until recently
the resistance of domestic refractories used for pouring steel
on machines for continuous steel casting (MCSC) was
1.5 – 2 times lower than that of imported refractories. This
circumstance leads to excessive consumption of refractories
and increased rejection of steel slabs when the casting pro-
cess has to be interrupted for replacement of submersible
nozzles or tundish ladles and for the wear of monoblock
To satisfy the growing requirements of metallurgists, the
Borovichskii Refractory Works (BRW) by force of the com-
pany specialists and invited researchers keeps upgrading the
technology of refractories in order to improve their physico
chemical properties and, accordingly their resistance.
FOR STEEL MELTING
The universal application of non-furnace steel treatment
and intensification of technology processes calls for the de
velopment of a new generation of refractories. The BRW
supplies periclase-carbon products containing different types
of periclase (sintered or melted) and different quantities of
carbon in the form of graphite: the product range includes
well-known grades ranging from PU-1 to PU-5 (Table 1)
[2, 3]. Several techniques have been developed to impart the
required properties to materials: introducing a spinel additive
to raise the heat resistance of periclase-spinel-carbon prod-
ucts (Table 2), controlling the graphite oxidation rate by us-
ing various antioxidants (aluminum, silicon, boron-bearing
compounds), use of different binders and techniques to de
velop a continuous carbon skeleton and control its strength.
Replacing part of periclase by corundum (Table 3) percepti
bly decreases heat losses via the walls due to the decreased
thermal conductivity of the material and increases the dura
bility of teeming ladle walls due to a higher heat resistance.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 2, 2007
1083-4877/07/4802-000146 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Materials for the paper were prepared with participation of V. V.
Skurikhin, S. I. Gershkovich, V. V. Bulin, and R. M. Mezhiev.
Borovichskiii Refractory Works, Belarus.
TABLE 1. Physicochemical Parameters of Periclase-Carbon Products
Standard value for the grade*
PU-1K PU-2 PU-3 PU-4 PU-5 PU-6*
Mass content, % (in calcined material):
MgO, at least 90 90 91 91 90 90 90 90
£ 1.0 £ 1.0 £ 1.0 £ 1.0 £ 1.0
Mass content of carbon, % 10 – 13 10 – 13 9 – 11 7 – 9 7 – 9 2 – 5 13 – 16 13 – 16
Apparent density, g/cm
, at least
3.00 3.00 2.95 2.95 3.00 3.00 2.95 2.95
Compressive strength, MPa, at least 35.0 35.0 35.0 35.0 40.0 35.0 35.0 35.0
Open porosity for all grades is not more than 6%.
Periclase-carbon refractories do not contain Al
. The contcnt of Al
is the samples of periclase-carbon products of grades PU-1 and
PU-6 calcined to a constant mass is due to the complete oxidation of the antioxidant contained in the material in the form of metallic aluminum:
the sample mass grows due to air oxygen.