ISSN 10623604, Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 2015, Vol. 46, No. 5, pp. 263–275. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2015.
Original Russian Text © A.P. Yurkov, L.M. Jacobi, N.E. Gapeeva, G.V. Stepanova, M.F. Shishova, 2015, published in Ontogenez, 2015, Vol. 46, No. 5, pp. 313–326.
Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) is the most common
plantmicrobial symbiosis. Its formation involves
et al., 2001; Finlay,
2008) and 80% of species and 92% of families of land
plants (Wang and Qiu, 2006; Smith and Rid, 2012).
Researches on AM structures, its morphology, were
launched in 1842 (
). First major reviews
on plants that form the AM with detailed anatomical
descriptions were published in 1889 (Schlicht, 1889).
Main morphological manifestations of interaction
between the host plant and the fungus were noted
there. In 1897, intramatrical swellings were defined as
“vesicles” (Janse, 1897) and it was found that the other
structures, later called “arbuscules” (Gallaud, 1905),
were located in the inner part of the root cortex.
In the 1960s, I. A. Selivanov founded a scientific
school to study mycosymbiotrophy and the other
forms of consortium relationships in plant cover of dif
ferent landscapegeographical zones of the Soviet
Union. AM (vesiculararbuscular mycorrhizae) is
described by I. A. Selivanov as phycomycetous tamnis
cophagous endomycorrhiza and arbuscular mycor
Development of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Highly Responsive
and Mycotrophic Host Plant–Black Medick (
A. P. Yurkov
, L. M. Jacobi
, N. E. Gapeeva
, G. V. Stepanova
, and M. F. Shishova
Laboratory of Ecology of Symbiotic and Associative Microorganisms,
AllRussia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology, St. Petersburg, 196608 Russia
International Research Centre “Biotechnologies of the Third Millennium,”
ITMO University, St. Petersburg, 191002 Russia
Chair of Ecology, Faculty of Ecology and Physics of Nature,
Russian State Hydrometeorological University, St. Petersburg, 195196 Russia
Laboratory of Breeding Symbiotic Technologies,
AllRussia Williams Fodder Research Institute, Moscow oblast, 141055 Russia
Chair of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Biological Faculty,
St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, 199034 Russia
Received November 24, 2014; in final form, February 26, 2015
—The main phases of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development were analyzed in black medick
Methods of light and transmission electron microscopy were
used to investigate AM. The first mycorrhization was identified on the seventh day after sowing.
type of AM. Roots of black medick at fruiting stage (on
the 88th day) were characterized by the development of forceful mycelium. The thickness of mycelium was
comparable with the vascular system of root central cylinder. The development of vesicules into intraradical
spores was shown. Micelium, arbuscules, and vesicules developed in close vicinity to the division zone of root
tip. This might be evidence of an active symbiotic interaction between partners. All stages of fungal develop
ment and breeding, including intraradical spores (in intercellular matrix of root cortex), were identified in the
roots of black medick, which indicated an active utilization of host plant nutrient substrates by the mycosym
biont. Plant cell cytoplasm extension was identified around young arbuscular branches but not for intracellu
lar hyphae. The presence of active symbiosis was confirmed by increased accumulation of phosphorus in
root tissues under conditions of
inoculation and low phosphorus level in the soil.
Thus, black medick cultivarpopulation can be characterized as an ecologically obligate mycotrophic plant
under conditions of low level of available phosphorus in the soil. Specific features of AM development in
intensively mycotrophic black medick, starting from the stage of the first true leaf until host plant fruiting,
were evaluated. The obtained plantmicrobe system is a perspective model object for further ultracytological
and molecular genetic studies of the mechanisms controlling arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiotic efficiency,
including selection and investigation of new symbiotic plant mutants.
: arbuscular mycorrhiza,
, black medick,
, arbuscular mycor
rhizal fungus, symbiotic structures, arbuscules, vesicles, spores, light mycroscopy, electron microscopy
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY OF PLANTS
: AM—arbuscular mycorrhiza; AM fungi—arbus
cular mycorrhizal fungi; Pa—phosphorus available for plant;
DAS—day after sowing.