The coast of Bangladesh is funnel shaped. The narrowing of the Meghna estuary along with its peculiar topography creates a funneling effect that has a large impact on surge response. In order to have an accurate estimation of surge levels, the impacts of the estuary should be treated with due importance. To represent in detail the real complexities of the estuary, a very high resolution is required, which in turn necessitates more computational cost. Considering the facts into account, a location specific vertically integrated shallow water model in cylindrical polar coordinates is developed in this study to foresee water levels associated with a storm. A one-way nested grid technique is used to incorporate coastal complicities with minimum cost. In specific, a fine mesh scheme (FMS) capable of incorporating coastal complexities with acceptable accuracy is nested into a coarse mesh scheme (CMS) covering up to 15∘N latitude in the Bay of Bengal. The coastal and island boundaries are approximated through appropriate stair step representation and the model equations are solved by a conditionally stable semi-implicit finite difference technique using a structured C-grid. Numerical experiments are performed using the model to estimate water levels due to surge associated with the April 1991 and AILA, 2009 cyclones, which struck the coast of Bangladesh. Time series of tidal level is generated from an available tide table through a cubic spline interpolation method. The computed surge response is superimposed linearly with the generated time series of tidal oscillation to obtain the time series of total water levels. The model results exhibit a good agreement with observation and reported data.
Journal of Coastal Conservation – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 10, 2017
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